ANTH 201 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Edward Burnett Tylor, Dont, Insitu

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8 Aug 2016
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17:03
-Multiple choice(20) and short answer(5)(2-3 sentences)
ex.Provide an example of a relative dating method.
Ex. what is stratigraphy
-Go through most important concepts(understand and explain)-
-The slides directs the most important concepts so we refresh using notes
and readings through those slides and readings.
-Know some things that are in textbook but did not talk about in class.
-ex. Other methods of absolute dating other than carbon
-overview of knowledge(methods and techniques)
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17:03
History of archaeology and thought:
-Discipline is situated in a larger historical and political context. Things
developed and concepts always shaped in relation to larger political and
social contexts.
-How it developed out of earlier forms of collecting and the discipline of
classical studies.
-More systematic ways of viewing the world which led to typologies. Relation
to classical studies to indicate the move that at first they needed textual
evidence to explain the past and we don’t need it anymore now. We rely
only on material culture which marks archaeology. Development of more
systematic collecting in relation to typologies. It is a way of establishing
relative chronologies.
-Distinction between relative/absolute. Look at the time table( Gavin Lucas-
time-The table and distinctions)******
-Christian Thompson: Subdivided prehistoric periods into stone/bronze/iron
age in order to establish a system in the things he found. He established
categories and refined them by making divisions between the material they
were made from and established similarities. He ordered them in historical
sequence and grouping. He added a time dimension(ordering), showing how
the types changed over time. This is very attached to the evolutionary
thought.
-The development of types of artifacts, the underlying notion is that they
developed from simple to more complex.
-The history of archaeology thought:
-Bruce Trigger****:
-Later 19th- Cultural historical school- Came up with the concept of culture
that is still used in archaeology today. Nationalist archaeology can be located
in this broader tradition of culture history.
-Marxist archaeology: Neo-marxist in late 20th century, and people still use it
today. Mid 19th to mid 20th. After culture history.
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17:03
-Gordan Childe was first very commited to cultural history and later became
a Marxist archaeologists.
-Functional and post-processtualist(Interpretive)- Indicate that it was not a
trend that just came up. It was influenced by some functionalist and became
more post-processtualist. We talk about it today as new archaeology.
-Post-processtualist- Don’t need to know much because it is too diverse. Not
on midterm.
-Evolutionary/Marxist/functional and post-processtualist:
1) Evolutionary: Influenced by 18th century enlightenment and 19th century
thought. Basic premise for Darwinian was that there was unilinear evolution
that was applied to the development of societies. Cultures can be arranged
in a series from simple to more complex. Every society must go through all
these stages od development and must go through it by exemplifary. The
model provided by Lewis Henry Morgan(Savagary/Barabnism)-Simple to
complex.
-Problems:
1)Didn’t account for geographical variability.
2)Underlying problem of racism
2) Explained cultural change from within( some cultures are located on a
lower step in the evolutionary sequence- if they are considered stable and
static, those would be primitive). What if they are inherently primitive or
static how do they change? Must be something else that triggers change that
comes from without not within.
-Culture history: Cultural change is the result of external stimuli not internal
dynamics( response to evolutionary)(textbook)(464-5)
1) Mechanism of diffusion and migration: Two related but different notions.
Migration, people migrate from the homeland and out, they bring with them
material culture and spread it. This is why we find different types of pottery
in different places.
-Diffusion: Cultural center of innovation that material culture was basically
transmitted to other people. People did not migrate, there was a way of
distributing the material culture or cultural ideas. Migration could have
played a role in there. Linked to the notion of culture areas. All these ideas
that came from Vienna(important scholars).
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