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McGill University
ANTH 210
Henricvan Gjsohard

ANTH 210 STUDY GUIDE 1. Edward Tylor, 19 century evolutionism. An advocate of physical and psychological unity of all persons. Primitive Culture – most important work; developed a theory of progression/evolution from primitive to modern world. He defined culture as a complex whole of art, law, ethics, etc. that an individual acquires in society. Tylor believed there was a universal basis for development of society and religion. Culture develops in a uniform progressive manner; its getting more complex with time. +implications. Sum civilizations stuck in development due to other factors, etc. 2. Gordon Chide. Used Marxist theory in his work. International, materialist, and comparative approach to studying culture. One of the first to disuss transition from hunter/gatherer to agricultural societies. Step away from evolutionism. Defined agricultural revolution. Coined the term “urban revolution”. 3. Lewis Henry Morgan Founder of American anthropology. Societies evolve thru changes in food production: savagery ->>> barbarian ->>>> civilization (technological achievements assigned to each). Somewhat Marxist in his views; influenced many Marxist afterwards. Emphasized te importance of family and property relations. Tied together technology, property, and family. Matrillinearity into patrillinarity (clans led by mothers -> monogamous familys led by fathers). 4. Neo-Evolutionism Change as adaptation, not progress. Evolutionism – linear. Discarded many assumptions of evolutionism: in particular its deterministic nature; introduces probability. Leslie White: culture as a means to capture and transform energy. The more efficient -> the more advanced. C = E(per capita) x T(efficience of tools). Steward: cultural ecology; study of processes thru which societies adopt to environment; analysis of tools and resources, etc. Multilinnear evolution theory studied how societies adapted to their environment. 5. Tendencies that herald a neolithic mode of production. Demography: increased population and pop. Density; decrease in group migration and territory per capita. Subsistence practices: diversification of subs.practices; intensification of fishing, vegetable collect., unsual risky foods(mollusks) , etc; increasing importace of storage; more productive, yet less efficient use of land per capita. Technology: specialization of the toolkit; innovation in hunting technology(bow n arrow); development of food processing technologies; decreased mobility -> more rational use of resources, esp.high quality ones. 6. Primary and Secondary states The primary Society is genetically coded society, and it is based on our genetics. Human nature and instinct are enough to keep a primary society harmonious and functional. The primary society is the basic social organization of man immediately above families. The ideal number of people in this primary society is believed to be around 150. Bands and tribes are regarded as primary societies. Chiefdoms and states are not .The culture of primary societies is close to basic human nature, and has no power to modify human nature. Overextension of peripheral potentials of human nature is rarely institutionalized in the primary society. The secondary society is man-made society. Since it is man-made, it has its purpose, namely the ideology or the value system, and the social structure to support the purpose. A secondary society is usually far larger than the primary society. The introduction of social stratification and other institutions that are against human nature is often necessary to keep a secondary society stable. The secondary society is created by human culture, and therefore, it has limitless possibilities with different value systems, and different directions while the primary society, dictated by human genetics, has only one type. 7. Brestead’s Fertile Crescant Fertile land -> intensive agriculture ->surplus of grain -> trade/state ??? The Fertile Crescent is a term first coined by James Breasted to refer to the area around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia and the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Breasted argued in his hypothesis that the flooding of these rivers created a region rich in fertile soil which enabled the early development of agriculture in Mesopotamia. Agriculture then led to the development of the first complex societies or civilizations. Other scholars such as Julian Steward built on Breasts hypothesis by arguing that it was the organization necessary to create canals using river water and expand the area of farmable land which led to the development of the state. In short, Breasted's hypothesis is that it was the natural fertility of the Mesopotamian region which facilitated it being among the first regions to develop civilization. 8. Carneiro’s hypothesis of origin of state In areas of circumscribed agricultural land, population pressure led to warfare that resulted in the evolution of the state. Circumscribed land: no other available land around. 9.Components of social power 10. Tiwanaku chronology Archaic – increased sedentism, Domestication Formative Period – village life, farming/herding ● Tiwanaku I – III – early urbanism ● Tiwanaku IV – first colonies ● Tiwanaku V – colonial development Mesopotamia Agricultural system was better off under a systemized gov-t as it required constant service (anti- salination canal service, etc.). The key to monopolizing land in Mesopotamia : ability to attract ppl to work on your land; no so much arable land itself, as it requires constant service by ppl. Ubaid period Ppl moving to central-southern part of Mesopotamia. Characterized by use of water canals, since otherwise agriculture is impossible. New kind of e
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