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McGill University
ANTH 322
Maria Sapignoli

ANTH322SocialChangeinModernAfricaRepresenting Africa Continent Idea Place The central cultural fact of African life remains not the sameness of Africas cultures but their enormous diversity Appiah 199540 in Why Africa Why Art The royal Academy Magazine 48There is not just one way to think humongous diversityAnthropologists want to change global falsified image people have must engageSize The continent is 11700000 sq miles in sizeGeography extremely diversedeserts fertile land green desertimageofenvironmentchangedthroughtimeDifferentrepresentationhaveimpactstodayideaofconservingpristineenvironmentcreatedforpoliticalreasonsandgovernmentalstrategiestopreserve54Statesin2011more3500differentlanguageslearnlanguagewhendoingfieldworkKhoiSanmostancientlanguagecultureBigprocessofurbanizationtownsPigmyBushmantermsdenigratoryetcommonlyusedtodayTribesseethemselvesasrelatedpopulationsofthesameethnicgroupareacrossdifferentboundariesConference26July2007ofNicolasSarkozygoodintentionsThetragedyofAfricaisthattheAfricanmanhasneverreallyenteredhistoryTheAfricanpeasantwhoforcenturieshaslivedaccordingwiththeseasonshasknownonlytheeternalrenewaloftimeviatheendlessrepetitionofthesameactionsandofthesamewordsThereisnoplaceforhumanadventurenotforanyideaofprogressOralhistorynothistorystereotypeofAfricawithouthistoryveryromanticviewunrealisticFranceismaincolonialpowerandyettalkingaboutAfricaaswithouthistoryDeniesEgyptianwrittendocumentsaswellasIslamicdocumentsAfricanshavealwaysbeenentangledwiththerestoftheworldnotcompletelyisolatedandseparateGeorgWilhelmFriedrichHegelAtthispointweleaveAfricanottomentionitagainForitisnohistoricalpartoftheWorldithasnomovementordevelopmenttoexhibitWhatweproperlyunderstandbyAfricaistheUnhistoricalUndevelopedSpiritstillinvolvedintheconditionsofmerenatureandwhichhadtobepresentedhereonlyasonthethresholdoftheWorldsHistoryHegelThePhilosophyofHistoryAnthropologists very much engaged in Colonialism in order to manage the colonythRoutes of European explorers in the 19 CenturyLivingstone Christianity brought to save their soulJohannes Fabian 198624 Colonial expeditions were not just a form of invasion nor was their purpose inspection They were determined efforts at inscription By putting regions on the map and native words on a list explorers laid the first and deepest foundations for colonial power By giving proof of the scientific nature of their enterprise they exercised power in a pure subtle formas the power to name to describe to classify Language and the Colonial Power the appropriation of Swahili in the former Belgian Congo 19801938Phases of European Colonization1516 century Portuguese Trading posts gold ivory spicesslaves17 century Dutch Cape Town 165217mid 19 century peak of slave trade18051877 European explorers188485 Berlin Conference partition of Africa Scramble for Africa19601970s Decolonisation1994 End of ApartheidPower of control influence how people liveHuman ExhibitionXIX Century Human Zoo Idea of primitive created exhibit to show difference when indigenous died body kept for display in museumClicko referring to clicking noise the San makeEssenzialising and representing Africa as a UnityAfrooptimism Panafrinism after independenceAfrica as a unity need to go to precolonial history to rebuild their identityAfropessimism fading state corruption all over image of Africa as failure country always in decline instability disease WBOAfrica Renaissance 1997 A hopeful continent wars are declining new laboratory for curing Malaria HIV people are reacting well Bill ClintonBill Gates huge foundations they substitute government in many wayscould be good opened schoolbad take off government responsibilityPolitical and economical results believed to be uncivilizedmust bring civilization now believed to be underdeveloped must bring developmentPresident Obama June 2013 in Dakar Senegal Im making this visit Africa because as Ive said before I see this as a moment of great progress and great promise for the continent Its true that Africa faces great challenges and meeting these challenges together is a focus of my trip But all too often the world overlooks the amazing progress that Africa is making including progress in strengthening democracy Many African nations have made tremendous strides in improving democratic governance and empowering citizensRepresentations of Africa A metaphor of absence the heart of darkness continent without history wildlife and pristine nature as the Other that makes the west possible as a woman as tradition the place that lacks of failure and catastrophes as a shadowAfrica Continent idea or placeAfrica as an empirical territoryAfrica as an idea a concept has historically served and continue to serve as a polemical argument for the Wests desperate desire to assert its difference from the rest of the world A Mbembe On the Postcolony20012Africa as a category through which a world is structured Ferguson Global Shadow20065Can we speak about Africa as a placeAfricans ShadowsWhat is the role of Anthropology todayAfrica as a placeintheworld a socially meaningful only too real a forcefully imposed position in the contemporary world Ferguson 20067MimicryImitationResistance to colonization parody or appropriationIndigenisationTo become like you Letter of Yaguine Koita and Fod Tounkara 1997 in Ferguson 2006155Why do we have a course on AfricaIn spite of the diversity there is an unifying image of Africa in the public and political debatesShould Anthropology avoid that debate NOAfrica as aplacein theworld Ferguson 2006 Entanglements of locals and globalsANTHROPOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN AFRICASally Falk MooreAfrican studies have frequently served the discipline of Anthropology as the central site of major innovation in theory and technique Moore 1993 4Africa was very much influenced by the way Anthropological theory changed through timeAnthropologycolonialismAnthropology as academic discipline is established in the colonial contextScience serves as instrument to legitimize European colonial ruleDuality of modernity aand tradition is also inscribes by anthropology19201960 Period of grow of anthropology and development of ethnographic fieldworkDuality of modernity and tradition is also inscribed by anthropologyWere anthropologist handmaiden of colonialismsAnthropology and the Colonial Encounter Talal Asad 1973Bronislaw Malinowski 18841942 Participant Observation and FunctionalismOriginal belief in Human characteristic and social stage in societyNot based on fieldwork but on reading and writingConsidered first real anthropologist ethnographer trying to understand what native and primitive were like from epic point of viewFather of functionalist paradigm considering village as a whole participant observation of being there trying to understand how society works society as a closed systemCriticized leaving time outside didnt think needed to understand history of society just being there can understandAchievement in order to contrast idea that primitive society is bottom of evolutionary scale tried to show that civilization was complex exchange system of necklaces
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