HIstory Summary Notes

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McGill University
ARCH 355
Annmarie Adams

History • The architect’s Dream • History is based on the questions you ask, not just a series of facts. • Its an edited view of the buildings of the world. • Left and right are opposite • Left: Its dark and romantic. There are gothic cathedrals, landscapes and nature. • Right: Classical, ancient greek and egyptian structures. • The whole thing is a large stage set. • Its a way of thinking, not recording. • People used to think that by studying beautiful buildings, you could produce them by osmosis. Pruitt-Igoe • Its destruction was considered to be the moment when post-modernism began. • Considered a social and economical failure • Isn’t brutalist, but its linked to modernist ideals. It failed because of the social context of the building, not because of bad architecture, although it may have helped make a bad situation worse. There is a problem of the architect not having a realistic view of life in terms of architecture • In Pruitt-Igoe, there’s no community, they’re very isolated. • It was demolished in such a public way, and it had ”won” an award. It was seen as THE example for such failures because of the scale and visibility of its destruction Modernism • Can be seen as a form of denial. Post-Modernism • ‘began’ with Pruitt-Igoe • A movement that started with architecture and spread into other disciplines. Chicago • Ideas: Classification in a city, fair and facade, the city as a hotspot for progressive architects and clients • The Chicago World’s Fair (Burnham) • Many ideas in modern urban planning showed up here. It was a very orderly place • A great stage set; a giant, temporary, fantasy world. Low crime rates. • The White City vs the Midway • The white city was very unlike real Chicago. Many classical buildings. • A great white city, then an amusement zone. • Statement that anyone who’s not european is not classy, or child-like. It wanted to imply that NA culture was as elevated as Europe’s. • White is traditionally the color of purity and cleanliness, and that you have the time and the means to keep it that way. • The White CIty➔ electricity, culture. Midway➔ curiosity from racialized, colonized understanding of these people. • There was an orthogonal section, and a romantic, picturesque section (the Dream) • It was encyclopedth of world architecture. • Influence in 20 century architecture, as well as pop culture and Disney Parks. • Its legacy: 1. Influence: parts of Toronto, the Capitol 2. Classification: in terms of objects and activities 3. Emergence as an important architectural city. A city about verticality, honest structure and progressive clients. 4. As a place for architects: Mies, Burnham, Sullivan. • The Chicago Skyscraper • Birth of the tall building (a precise moment in Chicago), perhaps inspired by the flatness of the area around CHicago. • Its a progressive building➔ due to its verticality, the idea of honesty and rationality. • They had a reason and a need to do it quickly➔ they had the technology, money and space to make it possible. • The idea that the skyscraper becomes a billboard for the owner; they want it to be as visible as possible. • The spirit of invention • In Europe, cities had an iconic image but in America they didn’t➔ room for creativity •5 technological achievements made it possible 1. The elevator • It made the upper floors as desirable as the lower ones 2. Electric Lightbulb • Provided reliable light that could be controlled, and all spaces were equivalent to window spaces • Use at night 3. The telephone • Can have business anywhere 4. The Steel Frame • Carried the load of the building. Could build taller buildings without having to increase the wall thickness at the base. • Also allowed for larger windows. 5. The fire (1871) • It wiped the entire downtown core, kindling a need to rebuild the core quickly and progressively. • Ornamentation: •We couldn’t detach ourselves from the ornamentation of classical buildings, so some of it remained in the skyscrapers. •It was a link from tradition to new technology. •Ornamentation placed specifically where structure was absent (Sullivan). Before, structure was ornamentation, like the Corinthian column. • Plan •The steel frame could do %100 of the work carrying the load, liberating the walls. This lead to the freedom and flexibility of the open plan. • Positive vs Negative elements of the skyscraper: •You’ve got lots of programmatic elements in one buildings. •But it was a way to accentuate class differences. You had zoning of different classes of work. • Home Insurance Building, William lebaron Jenney, 1890s •Arguably the first skyscraper •The windows emphasize verticality. •Enlarged entrance➔ hanks to steel frame. • Marshall Field’s Warehouse, 1887 • HH Richardson • You can read the plan in the massing of the building. • 2nd Lighter Building, 1891 • The structure is determined by the plan. Its the first skyscraper, if not the other by William leBaron Jenney. • Louis Sullivan • The skyscraper is like the human body: the base, the shaft and the head • He wants to emphasize the vertical outside, to imply whats going on inside. He adds nature based carvings on the horizontal spandrils, celebrating their uselessness. • Wainwright Building, 1890-92 • Structure also seen in the plan. • The only part thats fixed is the core with the elevators and stairs • He decorates the non-structural parts of the building (but in places that emphasize the way the structure works, and emphasizes the verticality. • He cares about how buildings meet the sky (cornice). • Monadnock, (With Burnham) • Tallest bearing wall in the world. 2m thick walls, like in Egypt. • Carson Pirie Scott Department Store, 1899 (Also Burnham) • Women we’re able to go into the city to buy goods. The department store was a new building type, to have all these goods in one location. • The idea of categorization in late 19 century architecture. • The transportation building (Chicago World’s Fair) • Completely against Classicism, but it was the center of the fair. • Importance of the skyline • Burnham (and Root) • The Reliance Buildng • Typical Chicago skyscraper. Has a cellular facade • Windows (repeat, like a waffle in facade): • One square section in the middle, and two smaller ones on the sides. • It was a way for architects to dramatize the height. • They are emphasizing that the fenestration is doing no work structurally • Auditorium Building • Had a remarkable program: showed that modern architecture had to be multi-use World Trade Center • Shows the power of architecture. It can be read from many directions, its a porous and powerful symbol. Women • Many women who worked in factories during the war returned to the home and had lots of babies (baby boom). So, there were many new, young families and returning war veterans that needed homes. Rise of subsidized houses like the Eichler House. • Dr. Farnsworth’s status as an unmarried woman and Mies’ Glass House. • Catherine Beacher House, 1869 • Had many of the same cultural aspirations as the post-war suburban house. • Lots of open space, a 2 room house. • Tiny kitchen (unlike most of the time) • “A place for everything, and everything in its place.” • Its wasn’t meant to free up women, but it wanted to professionalized housework and make it more noble work. • Foreshadowing of post-war kitchen. • Women in ads • The 2 spaces for women were the bedroom and the kitchen. • Highly sexualized ads for kitchen appliances. • Women as erotic creatures, to be consumed by the viewer. • Heated things and sexualized things become ionized. • Prescriptive Spaces • Buildings tell us how we are expected to act and live, but its not how we actually do • People were worried about genders intermingling (schools, hospitals) • Nurses’ Residence • References are to the home➔ causal, no right angles, expensive furniture • Spaces for women look like homes • Interns Residence • For men, the references are usually to the public domain • Both • They are both very similar look on the exterior, they are old fashioned. (similar facades) • Additions to the Vic. • Tried to make them fit with the existing context • By plan they look similar • Tiny rooms and double loaded corridors • Men’s Club, Metcalfe • Women in Architecture • It was a real sexist profession, like law or medicine • Female architects were ghettoized in these fields (medicine➔ pediatrics, law➔ family law). In architecture, they are pushed into housing, interior decorating and historic preservation • Canada • Because of late acceptance into the field, you don’t get these problems • They worked on big projects, like Place Bonaventure and Expo • Networking • They are less likely to be childless ➔ They didn’t feel that they hd to choose between having a profession and having a family • Few Canadian women felt their work was overshadowed by their famous husbands • Blanch Van Ginkel • Did the daycare on the roof for le Corbusier • Married an architect (many women married classmates) • Arcop➔ hired many women, worked on Place Bonaventure • Eva Vescei • Good example of the trends and typical profile of Quebec women • Resisted stereotyping • Worked at Arcop • Did LaCité • Marjorie Hill • First registered woman architect in Canada; she’s a complete unknown • Worked out of her parents’ home and used weaving as a networking tool to get commissions. • She never married (no children) • Her work was ghettoized and had many “feminine” jobs. She worked on houses and in the furniture department. Did ‘invisible’ work. • Moore House, 1948 •Compelling evidence of the ambiguous relationship women architects had with their clients, who thought they designed the building, and the woman only drafted it. This is something thats noted in many professions dominated by men or with male clients. Idea➔ male, production work➔ female • Forest Hill Home (Lawren Harris House), Toronto •Same story, the artist who lived here thought he designed it • Kitchens •One of her specialties •Lots of storage • Ford Street apartment building • Emily Carr • First Canadian woman painter, and she was perceived very differently form Marjorie (first architect) • Frankfurt Kitchen • The point of the kitchen was that everything had a place. Idea of order and control in the kitchen of the post-war house. • Julia Morgan • Unmarried, no children, worked mostly alone, modest eccentric➔ complete opposite characteristics of male architects (married and divorced, children, alcoholic, rarely work alone, eccentric). • First to attend Beaux-art in France. She also studied engineering • Designed many public buildings (800). She did a huge range of projects, from tiny houses to gigantic castles. She worked all over the world, opened doors for women architects and used many modern methods of production in her buildings • YWCA, Tokyo & Berkley California •Very open interior, modern, use of wood, related to arts and crafts ideals. • Honeymoon cottage • Fairytale Castle •She worked on every aspect of it, for Phoebe Hearst • She was a real expert in construction • Bernard Maveck •Produced the parts of their joint projects that the woman usually did • Twin Houses •Many of her houses follow the same formula for the plan • We usually only see women pictured as interior consultants, with material swatches. People had a sense that women brought beauty to buildings through fashion sense • Did they willingly confine themselves to domestic architecture, as a sort of safety net? • At Expo • Lots of sexist moments: The guides were beauty queens, MAN and his world. Glass Houses: • Prescription vs reality, intentions vs experience, conformity, fears of running out of space The Eichler House • A typical type of house built after WWII. • Thousands were built, and they all looked the same. Part of post-war culture of conformity. The houses are all uniform. • Automobile based landscape. • Eichler simplified the process of buying a home. For the first time, young, middle-class families could afford to buy houses. Its a cliché. • Looking to architects to solve the housing problem and the rise of the developer. • Houses had very sharply defined gender relationships. • They are the architectural expression of the nations fear of running out of space. • The importance of technology in post-war homes. • They were buying into the idealized image of what a family is, a fantasy. Some women wanted to be the perfect housewife. • The House • Ranch house with a flat roof. Clear, stark geometry. • Visible structure. Large beams transverse the house.Prefabricated wooden structure, on a heated concrete slab. • Family rooms in the back. Had a formal roof, leftover from the 19 century.h • Emphasis on efficiency, frugality and conformity. • Large garage (automobile). The car is very integrated into middle class life. • There is a courtyard. It functions as a elaborate entry system (prevents penetration by unwelcome). • The entire house is introverted. It looks in on itself➔ protection • Very rich inside (nice materials, like mahogany). • All the spaces are quite small and isolated, except for the family room. • Built-in appliances. • The double-sided cultural value of domestic appliances. • They make the promise to free up your life, but the reality is, that as technology progresses, so do our standards. • The Kitchen • The position is connected to the style of child care • This style (power of love and examples, consequences), demanded an architecture in which parents could hear and see everything their child did and be able to respond. • Functioned as a command center. Place to survey all. • Bedrooms • Highly sexualized (master bedroom). • Children’s are small. Packed in, separated by gender, then age. • How was it really used? Case study. • The garage never had a car in it. It was used by the kids to play. • ↳ the mother couldn’t supervise them. • The kids ignore the barriers, and dig dig holes under the fences. Backyards though of as continuous space. • The Atrium: used as storage space. • Curtains always closed: this glass house didn’t function as a glass house. They weren’t living in a modern way. • Big open central space: functioned as different rooms. • The living room is obsolete Suburbs • They all look the same from the air • The streets are short and curved. Lots of crescents. TV Houses • Brady Bunch • Similar to Eichler house • Bewitched • More conservative, 1920s style. Glass Houses • Philip Johnson House, 1949 • Many similarities to the ordinary suburban house. • Multipurpose rooms, simultaneous functions and expectations. • It has a sense of theatricality, its full of ironic references. It’s witty. • The guest House • It is used to analyze the main house • Its opaque, secretive and functions as a counterpoint to the glass house. • Its symbolic of ideas of the 20 century, and a critique of Mies’ house, which served as inspiration. • Party house • The Farnsworth House, Mies van der Rohe • Built for Dr. Farnsworth, an unmarried doctor. She wasn’t happy with the house. • A pure example of modernism in its two floating rectangles in plan, its white steel structure, its core cluster of functions, and generally open plan. • New concept that rooms are defined by where you place furniture, not walls. • Raised and cantilevered over the landscape. Its like you’re in the forest. • Mies was probably more concerned with furthering his own career than making something that fulfilled Dr. Farnsworth’s needs. He had a certain view on how she was supposed to live. • The Seagram Building, Mies van der Rohe (compared to the Farnsworth House) • It had a new language of rational order, unlike other skyscrapers • Idea of the floating building (it had light coming out from the bottom) • The importance of glass on the facade. • Modern, lack of ornamentation. Luxurious materials inside. • The structural elements are very clearly seen. Even though there’s a verticality to the structure, there’s also a strong horizontal line. • Isolation: there’s a big plaza in front of it. Its seen as a separate object, in contrast to the other buildings. Its also seen as a very pure and clean object, an individual artwork • The Eichler House vs the Glass House • Lots of glass • They respond to gender • Exposed structure • Separation between privacy and exposure. • Seem to be easily built (as if in a day) Frank Lloyd Wright • The Robie House, 1909 • Prairie style. • Thought of as the first modern house. It broke open the box. • Site plan: • Very different from Victorian style— a container of discreet rooms for each function. FLW destroyed this notion. • There is a main floor, and a clustering of functions. Flowing, open space. • Kitchen: There is nothing modern about it. • Horizontality: Roman bricks, extra long, minimal mortar • Marine County Civic Center • Very auto oriented. • Relationship between the building and the land. • A great monument to suburbia. • The illusion of infinity (spirals). Victorian Houses • Children located close to servants. • The kitchen is always in the back, with a staircase for servants. • Parlor space Brutalism • Large events of social change (women voting, civil rights movements) were the context for these buildings. • You either love it or you hate it. People hate it because it reminds them of prisons, basements, wartime bunkers and things we associate with the use of concrete. • Defensive, paranoid architecture. They are inward looking➔ there is a desire to protect ourselves, and create interior space that are shared with everyone. • Design was democratic and non-hierarchical➔ they tried to equalize the spaces. In a sense it was less hierarchical. Because there was a central space to which everyone was meant to have access. • Teamwork is the way • Loud, brazen architecture, especially in the sue of materials. • Wall details are raised, they’re sharp and can literally hurt you. • It was meant to be sculptural and ornamental. • Meant to rid it of the soft, shiny look of concrete. • The lesson of brutalism: the building itself wants to express how it was built. Everything is exposed and easy to read. Plumbing: the hot water is red, cold is blue. • They are a record of their own process, they are self-reflexive. • They are honest, transparent in their methods and have a direct connection to politics. • Incite strong emotional reaction • Boston City Hall • Yale Art and Architecture Building, Paul Rudolph, 1963 • Considered to have launched brutalism as a style. • Plan: • The idea of a building defying you to find the entrance, and cutting you up, refers the idea of defying a hierarchy. • No axial hierarchy. Tic-tac-toe • section • Hierarchy • Provides sight lines for people coming in. • Really dramatic. • Many different heights, level changes. • Larkin Building, Frank Lloyd Wright • Considered to have the first atrium, which is completely open to the skylit ceiling • Its very introverted, monumental, Egyptian. • Wurster Building, UCLA • Contrast to red tile roofs and design of spanish revival buildings • Its a giant concrete monster. • Mid-space objects, one side is not better than the other. • Modeled on a warehouse. Tough, garage-like look. Basement-like entrance • ‘unfinished’ texture. • Plan: • Lots of space for workshop (emphasis on making, using industrial materials and machines) • People feel like they can leave their mark on the building. Its an invitation to leave graffiti. • Pruitt-Igoe Vs Wurster • They’re not housing the same social classes, one is residential, the other isn’t. • Graffiti is a sort of expression of creativity, people aren’t getting attacked. • PI didn’t have a budget for maintenance, whereas Wirster did. • McGill • Redpath • Leacock, 1965 • All the offices are the same. • Tough building. The sheer strength of the concrete is part of the expression. • Intention to produce awe, a powerful space that evens everyone out. • Shares a lot in common with Redpath (both injure their users) • Roof is copper, like on the old buildings (makes no sense in this climate, but its homage to its neighbors➔ romantic, pitched roof, classic architecture) • Windows don’t open (introverted aesthetic) • Entrance: same size as windows. • Celebration of roughness, unpredictability of materials. Aggregate of concrete➔ falls in a haphazard way. • Compare to Macdonald-Harrington •Its very cozy, but elitist and have things that make it homey: bright colors, nice chairs. • Burnside • Bad copy of brutalism. Looks like a generic office building • Mclennan • Library at Yale • Vistas looking form one level to another. • John Andrews Building • Hall Building, Concordia • Incredible utopian idea that you can have an entire university in one building. It didn’t work➔ it exploded everywhere, you have windowless classrooms in the center • Idea of being able to look from one floor to another. • Setting for several social traumas (shooting) • Example of how we memorialize trauma in modern buildings➔ models of the building, one for each victim, and their names on wall. The building itself is part of the memorial. • Mcmaster Hospital • Brutalist moment where giant buildings are meant to house huge institutions. • Courtyards: idea that light somehow would occur here, also meant to help orient • The tower of washing machines • Probably inspired by Habitat • Less chaotic in its organization, but has the same cellular, modular form. Tiny apts. • Place bonaventure • A megastructure➔ nodes that mark the cross-sections of transportations systems of different speeds • You enter from a little hole from street. The real entry is through the metro. • Paranoid architecture, super tough walls. • An example of how Montreal as a city functions as a megastructure. • Arcosanti, Paolo Soleri • Idea of a self-sustaining little bubble. • Inspired by native south-western architecture. • Similar to utopian housing ideas in projects following Habitat. New Brutalism — Raw Modernism • There is a desire to be counter-cultural with this style of architecture. • Reyner Banham • He sees it as a new stage beyond modernism, not a reaction against it • Its about adapting ideas of modernism to a changing society after the war • Ethic or Aesthetic? This architecture is about bringing them together • The found material, clear structure, formal legibility of the plan • Bloody-mindedness. Its bold and loud, it wants to be seen. • The Smithsons • Brutalist house • Its like a small warehouse. The structure is clear and there are no inside furnishings. • They use what is available on the site • Norfolk, 1954 • A school, inspired by MIes’ IIT. They are interested in his clear plans and how he shows the structure of the building. • They are true to the materials and use rough ones. They use the steel as found, they don’t hide the bricks and show the pipes. Express the materials • These ideas evolve into the Brutalism we see at Yale; legible, axial plans, inner courtyards. • They’re trying to make a space for the community, where people can come together and use the space. Expo ’67 • Themes: • Global competitiveness • Transnationalism • Movement (different speeds) • You can move through this trans-national adventure at different speeds. • The plan of Expo was a labyrinth • Motion: metaphor for modernity (seen in USSR pavilion) • Types: train, vaporetto, sky train and mini-rail (and walking of course) • The metro was built at this time➔ brutalist aesthetic • Man and his World • Island➔ idea of an escape • An architecture of optimism and the future. • 99 themed pavilions. • 2 islands opposite each other: Isle Notre Dame and Isle St Helene. • It was very unlike the Chicago World’s Fair, with its strict planning regulations and classic architecture. There was nothing uniform about the architecture; each building was distinct, producing a lot of avante-garde architecture. • It was meant to be big and lighthearted, modern, with references to architectures of consumption. • The Expo as a place where the role of architects was one of transnational agents of change. • Cosmopolitan love of being in public was infused into the city after Expo. • Low crime and accident rate. A heterogeneous low stress place: an escape. There were no fences, which allowed for long, open views. • Expo was a kind of model for the city that will develop, of different transportation modes. • Urban encounters that made it special and memorable. It represented a new way of moving through architectural space. • Similarities toDisney Parks: • Transportation system functions as a type of threshold. It controls the whole movement of visitors. It all depended on smooth, flowing, overlapping motion. • Pavilions: • Kaleidoscope Pavilion: • Dedicated to color in daily life. • Example of female guide. She matches her building. • US Pavilion, Buckminster Fuller • Geodesic dome, not a typical structural type • Idea of the platforms within➔ of having an architecture inside, and a different system outside. From each perch you saw things at a new, different angle. • Movement➔ •importance of this seen through the escalators (associated with architectures of consumption) •Control: the architect is controlling everything you see and do and how long you stay in the building. • Lighthearted displays • USSR Pavilion • Use of escalators • Experienced the space through many levels. • US vs USSR • Described as angry animals on either sides of a fence➔ cold war tensions • Competitiveness fought out in architectural terms • Largess • Wonders of engineering, show-off buildings. • The exploration of outer space • German Pavilion • Used a space frame. • Came up with a system that could be continued endlessly. • Tensile structure. The masts are completely independent from the plan • Any activity could happen underneath. • Dutch Pavilion • Nothing is welded. • System you could extend forever. • An example of how people take design risks when the structure doesn’t have to last for a long time. • Habitat ’67 • High density living not in the suburbs. • Modular system. • Its very isolated, there are no schools or stores. • Its an organic process. Alternative modernisms • Contemporary architecture needs to reflect the culture of the time. • The architects in this movement focus on civil, institutional and public buildings. • Architecture as a way to bring forward the idea of the industrially made, mass produced product. CIAM — Modernism before the war: • The architects are starting to see how the realization of their projects affect the people using them. • Le Corbusier: • Interested in dwelling and housing. • Believed that new modern projects need to react to premodern social and urban conditions (cramped cities, bad living conditions) • Domino House, 1915 • Attempt to find an economical housing construction type for reconstruction after the war. • Contemporary City, 1922 th th • Inspired by utopian projects in the 18 and 19 centuries. • Centralized plan, with office towers (idea of the high rise taking shape) in the center, and worker housing on the perimeter. • As a reaction to earlier cities, the plan allowed people to get more air and light. • Division of activities according to what they’re for, and the building follow this separation. • There is also a separation of traffic types (trains, cars, pedestrians). They believed it helped people get to the center, but it makes for a very large city • Corbusier tried to put these sorts of plans on existing cities. • Plan Voisin, 1925 • La Ville Radieuse, 1935 • Its a more linear plan • Zoning is still present and elements are even more separated than before (housing, recreation, industrial, work). Still need a train or car to get around • Very high density • Have uninterrupted green spaces under the buildings • Public services are included. • Units are designed to have one corridor for every 3 floors— skip stop. • Housing projects • Corbusier sees it as a vertical city. • There is an interior street with functions for people living there. • There are schools on the roof, markets, etc • Chandigarh, 1961-63 • A grid-like city in he same scale as his previous projects. • How well do modernist principles work when you don’t look at the conditions of where you’re building? • Capital of Brazil, Oscar Niemeyer?, Brasilia, 1956-69 • The mayor wants a new, modern architecture and urban plan • Its a very rigid plan, and doesn’t really work with the site. • Very large residential blocks. The monumental axis is HUGE. Not a city built for pedestrians. • CIAM cities • The city was not necessarily built for pedestrians • Meant not to be close knit and dense, but have lots of space • Arrangement of the traffic system was meant to make the city more efficient • Ended up with large suburbs and slums around the city to house the workers who built it. • No consideration for sustainability of these cities. Team X (1953-1981) — Modernism on the Street • Group within CIAM. • They want to bring people living in the buildings back to the focus, and connect user psychology to a place. To give users autonomy to create characters around them • They are interested in structuralism and cities build around a network structure. Its based on a cellular unit that is developed and connected in different ways • CIAM 8 • Team X is starting to critique the older generation • They organize the 10 congress and present their ideas in a different way • Instead of organizing the city in 4 zones, they propose to design thinking about it through house, street, district and city. Its organized as a hierarchy of human associations, but not under the traditional definitions. • Golden Lane Housing, Smithsons • Instead of Corbusier’s interior street, they have one in the air. It is visually connected to the rest of the city. • They want people to be able to see the playfulness of the street. • They bring the focus back to the human presence. • Everything is thought of as being connected by a network, no more hierarchical grid plans. This makes for a more mobile society. Inspired by biology. • Fougasse Layout • 1 floor houses with pedestrian traffic around them. Everything is organized around a courtyard. • House of the Future • Its a prototype for someone living in 1981 • Its built with technologies that do not yet exist. • Also organized around a central courtyard (similar to Eichler house). Everything should be visible • The shapes are curved, there are hardly any right angles. They believe there is no need for right angles if theres no functional need for them. • Sugdan House, 1955 • Its built with found materials: second hand bricks and windows. • Its purpose is for us to question what we’re seeing➔ the proportions are not what you’d expect • Robin House Gardens, 1964-70 • Built a street in the air. • It doesn’t really work, like a lot of public housing. • Its built for a community where there’s already crime and so fails in similar ways as Pruitt-Igoe • Village for Children, 1955-60 • Units on the edge, its organized like a village around a communal space, not around function. Like the Dogon tribe. • Large open spaces typical of modernist buildings, but you have creation of bulby spaces and units • Details marks space (like doorsteps) ➔ within a large space, smaller spaces re created. There exists a connection between units and the larger structure
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