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ARTH 207 (4)
Midterm

Midterm review notes.docx

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Department
Art History
Course Code
ARTH 207
Professor
Angela Vanhaelen

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Giotto, Frescoes, Arena Chapel, Padua, 1305-06 Padua is a center for revival because of the university, interest in talent and fame Patron: Enrico Scrovegni - Wealthy banker, money lender - Build a private chapel - Father was a sinner, usury – considered a mortal sin - Builds this chapel as an act of atonement, repenting his sins, saves his reputation and his soul - Good ex of someone that has the power to shape his identity in society - The intended function of the work is not always the accepted, says the piece is more a work of vanity than spirituality Giotto was taught in the byzantine style but then breaks free Chapel - Barrel style - Blue, unifying the whole thing (byzantine is very gold, looks much more naturalistic) - Fresco technique (painting directly on the walls) o Giotto uses the wet frescoe (lasts longer)  Great ordeal involving covering your work with wet plaster and painting each section in separate days (apprentices often paint the sky or something easy to help out) - Joachim (jesus’ grandfather) Christ’s ancestry o Upright citizen of jeruselem, not able to have children so he goes out into the wilderness to pray, comes across shepherds o Joachim takes refuge in the wilderness  Giotto takes a sort of psychological depth, uses pose and gestures  Faces are very expresses  Colors and setting make it look like a theatre set, pushing the narrative into our faces  Animals coming out, recognizing the truth while shepherds are very apprehensive o Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate  Joachim rushing into city, Anna rushing into wilderness and they meet  Moment of tenderness, oblivious to everyone else, overcome by this moment of good fortune  Subplot: women + widow(foreshadowing jesus’ death) o Shepherd is cut off (symbolizes that he is coming from a different space) o Architecture – scale emphazes the story, heightens the drama o Annunciation – Theatrical  Mary receiving the message that she is pregnant o Arrest of Christ (kiss of Judas)  Judas is one of Jesus’ followers, he then betrays Christ  The kissing of jesus, a lot of tension  The figure in the front is showing conflicting emotions  Much chaos in the background but they are being blocked by other figures, focusing on the main plot  Ranging of emotions and reactions drawing our eyes to Jesus and Judas o Brings us into the narrative, very human story, coming into our space and time, engaging the viewer as though you were a participant in the story  Using motion and emotion to stir the viewer, ultimately changing the viewer with direct emotional appeal o Lamentation  Jesus has been crucified, Mary and the decibels mourning the death of Christ  Lost something and they are hugely disappointed by this  Complete expression of grief  All angles point towards Jesus  Dynamism, shallow stage set again  Cloaked figure, the previous foreshadowing reappearing  Single dead tree – symbolism for his death  Tree of life, bringing back to Adam and Eve, when jesus dies sins arise from the dry tree o The Last Judgement  Relating back to medevil church, as you leave you see that Christ will return to come and judge you  Hell is at the side with people being tortured  Very chaotic, big devil figure eating people and defecating them out  Angel rolling up the painting reminding us of the representation, byzantine gold is showed, brings us back to reality  Enrico Scrovegni – salvaging his reputation. Giotto earned fame and build his career quite dif from the byzantine style - Dante, Divine Comedy (c. 1308-21) o Cimabue believed that he held the field. In painting and now Giotto has the cry, So that the frame of former - Boccaccio, Decameron (1350) o “Giotto brought back to light the art of painting that for many centuries has been buried under the errors of some who painted more to delight the eyes of the ignorant than to please the intellect of the wise” Allegories of Good and Bad Government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Palazzo Pubblico (Town Hall) of Siena, 1338-39 - Sienna, a very prosperous place o Democratic government (commune) o Based on the classical ideal of democratic government o Power is shared among a few people for a two month term for each member of government (constantly rotating) o The viewership is the civic official as well as local and foreign delegations, presents the good government of Siena o Not much religious symbol, much more civic/political o Shift in patronage o The town hall (1298) = growing importance of the government - The first thing you see is a representation of bad government and then you are reassured by the presence of the nine that there is good government o Bad gov  Justice is in chains, Devil figure rep. tyrannical system, surrounding figures rep. other aspects of a bad government  Allegory – human figures to represent abstract concepts  Democracy defines itself in opposition to this one man rule  Destroyed building = effects of bad gov.  Effects of bad gov on the countryside, over run by violence o Good Gov.  Allegory – Justice is quite dominant, King rep. commune of sienna surrounding by 6 female virtues (peace, generosity, temperance)  King resembles Christ, familiarizes the viewer h/e introduces politics  Citizens hold a cord rep. peace & good deeds  Clever visual of a good gov. (everyone pulls together, important in a democracy)  Figures are very solid, all men, very prosperous  Medevil idium as well as giotto esque  Effects of good gov on city  Commerce = prosperous  Building up the city  Filled with activity  Different class groups all together  Countryside  People going to hunt  Peasants working land  Goods going into city  Seen through urban eyes, they need a prosperous countryside (where their food comes from)  Personification of secrutity flying over the people o Visual warning Duomo (Cathedral of Florence) - Begun before the plague (1296) - The civic officials proposed a new church that would be large enough to have the entire population of the city within the church - Challenge for the civic government because of the plague - Wanted to build the largest dome in the world at the time o Humanism – people’s ability to figure out such a project - Architects and artists would submit plans - Giotto – the bell tower (Campanile) of Florence Cathedral, 1334 o Fresco painter working as a full fledged architect o Looks like tower of Pizze o Theme of competitiveness between cities - Chose Giotto to be the head of this project, his identity very connected to the identity of Florence Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral, 1417-36 - Sets Florence up as a center for artistic wealth and architectural genius - Leon Battisa Allberti in his treatise On Painting of 1436 says that the dome was, “vast enough to cover the entire Tuscan people in its shadow” - Religious monument but also an important civic monument also a monument to Brunelleschi Or San Michele, Florence - Multi purpose building o Functioned as the wheat exchange o Important Religious site  People would pray to the picture of the virgin Mary o Guild – union  Oversees training  Only way you can practice a trade was to be in the guild  To be in politics you must be apart of the guild  Major guilds – bankers, wool traders  Political pressure put on the guilds  Niches held sculptures of the patron within the guilds - Project shaped by political pressure - Competition between artists that spurs innovation Ghiberti, John the Baptist, 1412 vs. Donatello, St Mark, 1411-12 - Bronze vs. marble o Bronze = more expensive, more difficult to work with  Commissioned by the cloth finishers, they wanted the largest work of bronze ever created  Stylized drapery o Marble gives you more of a sense of the body, more realism  Gothic style, known for the gothic sway  Done for a minor guild, linen workers  Less expensive  More posed  Face is much less stern, more attention to the actual body (muscles, veins etc)  Nanni di Banco, Four Crowed Martyrs, 1410-1413 - Stone carvers guild (minor) - Artist is a member of said guild - Predella Panel o Florentine workshop, clever way that he reminds the viewer of sculptors in the city - Saints blessing work of sculptors - Four figures taking a principle stand, refusing o Dies for their faith (martyr) o Plays with fabric and cloth - Public works of art at street level o Draw you into the conversation, psychological exchange with the viewer o Citizenship – doing what their doing out of their conviction o Model for the guild members as well Donatello’s St. George, 1415-1417 - Guild is the armorers and sword makers (minor) - Work done in marble - Build shield and armor, Sword = very confrontational for the viewer - Presence in the city, viewers speaking to the statues o Quite an impact on people - Vigilant - Adolescent boy – psychologically more effective, as a boy he can overcome these fears, defending the city o Citizenship – connects with the viewers o Donatello draws you into that process of mastering yourself o You yourself have to muster your courage to protect the common good - Linear perspective created and atmospheric o Depth in a very shallow space David by Donatello (1408) in marble - Young shepherd boy who killed the giant who threatened Israelites with a sling shot - Very vulnerable, physically weak but psychologically strong - Resonates with political pressures - Courage and the skill to kill the Tyrant - Key symbol of Florentine identity Donatello, David, (bronze) after 1428 - The Medici family commissioned this piece o Family of bankers, held a strong presence in Florence o Their power was resented o The piece may be actually resonating the power of the family rather than the battle between David and Goliath - Private work in the family’s palace - Revival of the classical male body and made him in nude - Androgynous body - Sensuous, more about eroticism that politics - Sadistic pleasure in the face of David - Sodomy Donatello, Judith and Holofernes, 1456-57 - People that are in a weaker position in society can still save a community from tyranny - Emasculation - Also commissioned by the Medeci family o Appropriated a symbol of the Florentine republic o Society sees this family as the tyrants that they need to overcome o One expelled, city takes statues away and places them as trophies from overcoming the tyrants Ma
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