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[ATOC 184] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (93 pages long!)


Department
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences
Course Code
ATOC 184
Professor
Eyad Atallah
Study Guide
Final

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McGill
ATOC 184
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1
2015 in review
A lot of el Niño’s:
El Niño: pool of abnormally warm water at the surface of the water
Water surrounding north America is warm and this has impacts on weather
El Niño is causing California to be wet for the first time in years
It impacts the weather around the world
Water temperature's over the central tropical pacific has an effect for continents
all over the world
December in 2015 in Montreal: warm this is partially due to el Niño
World as a whole is hotter than normal
Temperatures of the year
Its basically warm colours
Over the northern hemisphere the temperatures were above normal
Exceptions: parts of northeastern Canada, Greenland and north Atlantic
saw temperatures near or below normal for the year
Basically everyone else saw was above normal
Largest anomalies were around the arctic
The arctic is warming up faster than everything else is
This does not mean we cannot have snow storms
Some headlines #1
We had the largest snowfalls on record in January and February for the northeast
Boston set its all time record of snow falls for the year
We are unlikely to see what Boston saw because Montreal is not close enough to
an ocean
We don’t have enough moisture over Montreal
Coastal sections can get really intense and large snow falls
Some headlines #2
With the intense warmth in the water temperatures, we have seen many intense
tropical cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons
All the same thing, just called different things depending on where they
take place in the world
We have been seeing over the past 3 or 4 years a lot of storms at the edge of our
records in terms of intensity that are very intense
Each year we set a new record for strongest typhoon or hurricane on record
This is a picture of hurricane Patricia that intensified from a storm with 50-80 km
power winds to a storm with 250-260 km power winds in less than a day
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Then came ashore on the coast of Mexico, one of the first storms since
hurricane Andrew in 1992
Most intense storm ever reported in the western hemisphere of the earth
(based on measurements)
Some headlines #3
Pretty hot June days in pacific northwest (rocky mountains)
30 Celsius is 86 Fahrenheit
40 celsius = 104 fahrenheit
To get 40 celsius in washington state pushing a border british columbia = quite
surprising
California:
decade long drought in California
below normal in rainfall for 10 years
problem because California is an intense agricultural zone for the USA
They grow everything in California
the climate of California does not support its agriculture
California is prone to droughts so a prolonged drought was unusual but should
be expected of the state
water stress in the state is huge because many people were dependent on the
agriculture and growing produce
Record breaking wildfire years which burned down the land for growing crops
Then el Niño's kicking in and there's floods
Rain on top of parched/scorched land that turns into slides because there’s no
soil holding the land together
Sea Ice Extent
Abnormal amounts of sea ice extent in the Antarctic
Some of has to do with temperatures warming around the perimeter so
that there’s a greater flow of the glaciers and expanding a little bit -- part of
it due to precipitation in Antarctic
Antarctic is significantly colder than arctic
We don’t expect to see ice melt in Arctic in global warming at least for a while
Sea ice loss in the summer in the arctic
We are now clearing the northwest passage (we could sail from Russia to a
different hemisphere such as Canada)
It will not disappear entirely but it will disappear in a seasonal sense
Sea ice will likely become seasonal in 30 years or so
During the summer the arctic will be mostly ice free
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