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ATOC 184- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)


Department
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences
Course Code
ATOC 184
Professor
Eyad Atallah
Study Guide
Final

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McGill
ATOC 184
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Science of Storms
Lecture 2: January 8th, 2015
Temperature
-is a measure of the average speed of molecule movement in a substance
-this is the movement is faster for higher temperatures and slower for lower
temperatures
-for solid objects it has to do with the rate of vibration whereas with a liquid it deals
with the movement
-if you put a temperature of something it measures kinetic energy
Temperature Scales
-different temperature scales were developed based the phases of water (Celsius) and
human comfort (Fahrenheit). The Fahrenheit scale was largely developed based on
typical outdoors temperatures in England.
-Kelvin; devised by William Thomson (1824-9 ho late eeied the title Lod
Keli
-based upon the concept of that 0 degrees is set to an energy state in which there is no
molecule movement
-Absolute zero (0K)=-459.67 deg F=-273.15 deg C
Average Global Temperatures
-note that both the coldest temperatures in the winter and the warmest temperatures
in the summer are over land
-summer: colder over water than land, winter: colder over land than water
-the reason that temperatures are more extreme over land than over the oceans is that
water has a much larger HEAT CAPACITY than land does
-what it means is that it takes more energy to change the temperature of water than it
does to change the temperature of land (10x more energy to raise the temperature of
water)
-temperatures vary a lot more over land than over water
Earths position as it revolves around the sun
-the seasonal change in the number of hours of daylight and the intensity of that light
are the primary reasons that temperatures vary by season.
Solar Flux
-flux is the amount of energy or material that passes through a given area
-in the case of the Sun, it is the number of photons that pass through a given area per
unit time.
-flux is proportional to the density flows, it varies by how the boundary faces the
directions of flow.
Solar Flux and Distance
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-distance towards the sun is not changing, further from the sun receive a lot less energy
than Earth
Impact of Su Depeds o…
Land vs. Water
How far away you are from the equator (closer equals more consistent sun, farther
away equals variable sun access and more seasons)
Pressure
-the atmospheric pressure is the force applied by the air on a particular unit area of
surface
-the standard sea-level pressure about 1012 millibars
-this amounts to 1 kg per cm squared or 14.7 pounds per inch squared
-most of our weathe deals ith hage i ou pessue…
-columns of air (1 inch square) extending from the surface to the top of the atmosphere
at various U.S. locations
-pressure decreases as you increase further into the atmosphere because there is more
below you, whereas in the ocean at the bottom there is more pressure, space there is
very little pressure not enough oxygen
-pump air into the cabin of a plane, not used to the pressure, when the door opens
there is more pressure inside the plane so it gets sucked out
Average variation of pressure with altitude
-though experiment: How many breaths of air a passenger on an unpressurized aircrafts
needs to take to inhale the same amount of air as at sea level?
-gravity pulls the atosphee to the sufae thats h thee ae oe oleules
Pressure also varies from one place to another
-consider the following topographic map. This shows differences in elevation.
Compare the vertical pressure variations with the horizontal pressure variations
-pressure changes much more rapidly with height than it does from place to place
*pressure is dependent on the density (number of molecules in a given area) and the
energy within those molecules*
-increase the temperature and the molecules will increase movement and force
-force of gravity pulling the liquid down, and the ascension of the liquid, tries to
maintain equal pressure everywhere (ex: pour water onto the table) creates a balance
between the distribution.
-balance is called pressure gradient
The Tropopause
-the tropopause slopes downwards from the tropics (16-18km) to the poles (18km)
-the iddle latitudes Moteals latitude is aout  deg N tpiall -13km
-the tropopause height is lower in the winter than in the summer
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