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BIOL 101 (2)

midterm prep

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McGill University
Biology (Sci)
BIOL 101
Sonya Laszlo

1. What is the definition of Evolution? a. Descent with modification b. Changes in the heritable traits present in a population over time c. Changes in allele frequencies in a population across generations d. All of the above e. None of the above 2. What is the definition of Natural selection? a. Differential reproductive success of individuals with different phenotypes b. Differential reproductive success of individuals with different genotypes c. Differential reproductive success of individuals in different environments d. All of the above e. None of the above 3. What was suggested by the fossils found in the geologic column? a. The earth was approximately 10,000 years old. b. Rock strata were deposited in different sequences in different locations c. New species appeared continuously through geological time d. A and B e. A and C 4. Adult male gloo-birds are red if they live in shaded habitat as juveniles, but they are yellow if they live in sunny habitats. Female gloo-birds prefer to mate with red males, and hardly ever mate with yellow males. Which of the following statements is true about this population a. Natural selection favours red colouration in males b. Selection will eliminate yellow colouration from the population c. Yellow males will evolve to be red through natural selection d. Natural selection will result in a high rate of mutation from yellow to red colouration e. All of the above 5. What is the original source of genetic variation in populations? a. Natural selection b. Non-random mating c. Genetic drift d. Migration e. Mutation 6. Adaptations are traits that: a. Maximizes an organism’s lifetime reproductive success b. Can increase in frequency due to natural selection c. Increases the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce relative to others without the trait d. A and B e. B and C 7. How do transitional forms provide evidence for evolution? a. They show that traits of more than one taxon can coexist in a living organism b. They are one step in the evolution of one taxon from a different, pre-existing taxon c. They illustrate the law of succession d. They identify the location of transitions between strata in the geologic column e. None of the above 8. Why does this figure (right) provide evidence for Darwinian evolution? (Don’t worry about the diagram; the answer will click) a. It shows analogous developmental b. It shows that evolutionarily advanced species change more during development than do more primitive species c. It shows taxa that are very different as adults have similar traits in early development d. A and B e. All of the above 9. Which of the following modern techniques, unknown to Darwin, has contradicted Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection a. Radiometric Dating b. Population Genetics c. Mendelian Genetics d. Molecular Biology e. None of the above 10. At the conclusion of an experiment, you test for an effect of treatment X on variable Y and find ____. What can you conclude? a. 7/100 times, your result suggests a significant effect b. You need a large sample size to test for an effect c. 7/100 times you could get the result you found by chance d. You must reject the null hypothesis e. X has an effect on Y 11. What are Darwin’s four postulates? a. Variability, sexual reproduction, struggle for existence, random survivorship b. Introduction of alleles by mutation, gene flow, selection, fixation of novel alleles c. Variability, heritability, struggles for existence, nonrandom lifetime reproduction d. Mutation, migration, selection, nonrandom mating e. None of the above 12. You are studying a lizard with alleles R and M at one locus. 95% of RR and RM individuals survive to adulthood and 0% of MM individuals survive to adulthood. You start with a population of 100 and allow random mating for 10 generations. Which of the following graphs is most likely to represent the frequency of allele R over the course of the experiment? a. Graph A b. Graph B c. Graph C d. Graph D The graph below shows the beak lengths in a soapberry bug population. Answer questions 13 – 14 based on your understanding of this ‘natural experiment.’ 13. What event in 1930 affected the evolution of beaks in soap berry bugs in Florida? a. Extreme summer temperatures killed 90% of the population of soapberry bugs b. The introduction of a long-beaked insect species that competed directly with soapberry bugs. c. A drought affected food availability for soapberry bugs d. The introduction of a new plant species that could be consumed by soapberry bugs e. Migration of a group of soapberry bugs from Texas to Florida 14. Which of the following figures would best represent the relationship between fitness and beak lengths of soapberry bugs in this population between 1930 and 1980? a. Graph A b. Graph B c. Graph C d. Graph D e. Graph E Questions 15 – 19 are related to the phylogenetic trees presented. 15. Which of the following is the best phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of these moths? a. Tree A b. Tree B c. Tree C d. Tree D 16. What logic is used to determine the most likely phylogenetic tree? a. The tree that maximizes the number of independent contrasts is the most likely b. The tree that requires fewest evolutionary changes is the most likely c. The tree with the largest number of synapomorphies is the most likely d. A and B e. B and C 17. In the best phylogeny identified above, which of the following are sister species? a. Taxon B, Taxon C b. Taxon E, Taxon F c. Taxon F, Taxon K d. Taxon H, Taxon J e. All of the above 18. For the best phylogeny identified in question 15 which of the following taxa is NOT phylogenetically independent contrast that could be used to test your hypothesis about the origin of ears? a. Taxon B, Taxon C b. Taxon D, Taxon E c. Taxon F, Taxon G d. Taxon H, Taxon I 19. You use the fossil record to determine that the ancestor of all moths, at the root of the tree, had ears. Given this new information, which of the phylogenies above is the best hypothesis for the evolution of these moths? a. Phylogeny A b. Phylogeny B c. Phylogeny C d. Phylogeny D 20. What factors affect testes size in bats and primates? a. Sperm competition b. Body size c. Likelihood of female mating with more than one male (e.g. a hoe) sharing a fertile period d. A and C e. All of the above Questions 21 – 23 refer to the graph below and the experiment on the function of wing markings and wing waving in Tephritid fruit flies. The graph (right) shows the results of this study. 21. What was the purpose of Treatment ‘B’ in this experiment? a. To control for effects of wing surgery on risk of predation b. To investigate the effect of marking without waving c. To control the individual variation in activity levels d. To investigate the effects of wing marking on detection by the predator e. To control for variation in wing length 22. What conclusion can be drawn from the data in THIS graph? a. Wing waving and markings decrease predation by a variety of predators b. Wing waving and markings decrease predation by jumping spiders c. Wing markings are more effective than waving in deterring predators
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