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Biol 111 final study guide

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

Final Study GuideLecture 9Animal Characteristics1 Eukaryotic true nucleus membrane bound organelles2 Heterotrophic use preformed organic materials as energy and carbon source modes of feeding a predatorsb herbivoresc filter feedersd parasitese detritivoresf omnivoreNote Most animals have internal digestion internal gut that is continuous with the outside environment and permits internal digestion of food items3 Multicellularitymeaning a cells can become specialized to carry out specific functionsb organisms can grow in sizeMaterials can diffuse throughout smaller cells more quicklyIf you are one large cell you have a diffusion problem because to have a low surface area to volume ratio4 No cell wallsa hydrostatic skeleton muscles contract against fluid filled cavityb exoskeleton nonliving covering that does not grow with animals ecdysozoansmolting animalsc endoskeleton internal support vertebrates living tissue some invertebrates nonliving CaCO35 Motile at some life stageMovement reduces competition enhances genetic diversity6 Somatic body cells are diploid2N7 Animals are diplontic only gametes are haploidNote most animals have tissuesTissues are groups of similar cells organized into a functional unit muscular nervous connective epithelial Tissues can function together as organs to complete more complex tasks digestion and absorption Animal Diversity35 Phyla1 million species are classified97 are invertebratesAnimals are monophyletic one common ancestorEvidence similar gene sequence unique types of junctions between cells similar extracellular matrix moleculesClosest living relative to ancestral animal is the colonial choanoflagellate protozoanAnimal Diversification543490 myarapid diversificationmany new phyla formedBurgess Shale BCSponges Phylum Porifera9000 speciesmostly marine sessile as adults but motile as larvaespicules and a network of elastic fibres for supportsize 2 mm to 2 metersSponge morphology is highly variableBasic form Excurrent pore osculuminternal cavity spongocoelincurrent pores ostiaNo true tissues or organsno muscles or nervesMesoglea where cells are inbeddedMesoglea is noncellular some supportSpicules CaCO3 and SiO2 provide rigiditySpongin protein fibers flexible supportCell types1 Choanocytes collar cells line interior flagellated to create currents trap food particles2 Amobocytes amoeboid movement reside in jelly matrix mesoglea transfer food to other cells3 Epidermal cells flattened line exterior4 Porocytes form channel for water flow not always presentFeedingIntracellular digestionMost sponges are filterfeeders but a few are carnivorous with specialized spicules for capturing preyAsexual ReproductionFragmentation not self induced brought about by waves or predatorsBudding clone of parentSexual ReproductionHermaphroditic Sperm and eggs are produced in choanocytes or amoebocytes broadcast sperm filter in different sperm eggs fertilized develop in mesoglea Larvae released motile settle on suitable substrateSponge evolved 700 myaLimitations of SpongesUnable to feed on larger preydigestion is intracellularUnable to achieve greater organization or coordination between body parts cellular level or organizationLecture 11Embryonic developmentBody form symmetryCnidariansPlatyhelminthesEmbryonic developmentZygotemulticellular organismstndzygote diploid cell resulting from union of two haploid gametes 1 cell of 2 generationembryo young animal or plant while it is still contained within a protective structure2 Major processes occurring during embryonic development1 Cleavagecell division process forming many cells from one cell2 Gastrulation in folding process forming embryonic tissue layers 23 from one layer of cellszygote2 cell stage8 cell stagemorula solid ball blastula hollow ball early gastrulalate gastrulagastrulagerm layers or layers of embryonic cellsOrganisms with 2 germ layers are diploblasticOrganisms with 3 germ layers are triploblasticEctodermepidermis nervous systemEndodermlining of digestive and respiratory systemMesodermmost internal organs muscles skeletal system heart stomachArchenterondigestive space gut cavityBlastoporemouth or anusTissues enable body organization and gut enables extracellular digestion
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