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Lab 3 - Exam Review (Procedures).docx

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Department
Biology (Sci)
Course
BIOL 111
Professor
Suzanne Gray
Semester
Fall

Description
LAB 3: Plants on Land Types of Species: Alien or exotic species: introduced to a region beyond their native range (originated from a different country/region)  Considered to be a problem because their proliferation is occurring at an alarming rate and because they can have serious effect on native taxa Invasive species: colonize and disperse rapidly Native or endemic species: originally present in a region Anthriscus sylvestric came from Eurasia and is found in moderately disturbed habitats (require moist or wet sites) How can the negatively affect ecosystems?  Displace vegetation  Release chemicals that may affect other plants ability to colonize  Fed upon cattle = low nutrition = reduce milk production Quantify the abundance of Plants: Transects: straight line marked along the ground to define where sampling will be conducted Quadrats: circular/square areas that are delineated and used to define the area in which the plant community will be quantified Plant Hormones and Growth Regulation:  A terrestrial existence requires a plant to respond to the environment  Plants respond by modifying how they grow (growth regulation)  Hormones regulate many responses  Indolacetic acid (IAA) found in a group of hormones called auxins: increase the size of cells formed from the apical meristem  Plant growth is controlled by variation of IAA levels Apical Dominance and Growth Hormones: Apical dominance: the suppression of lateral branches that normally appear from lateral buds located in leaf axils. This suppression results from a high level of IAA in the growing tip of the stem Effect of Gibberellin: Gibberellin: effects on seed germination and stem growth, promote cell elongation and cell division  Do gibberellin and IAA have the same effects? No. The application of Gibberellins on dwarf plants promotes stem elongation so that the dwarf plants are close in size to normal plants. (Normal plants are LAB 3: Plants on Land unaffected by gibberellins.) IAA does not affect dwarf plants. Dwarf plants sprayed with IAA will be the same size as the control dwarf plants.  If any of the growth regulators make the dwarf plants into tall plants, can you see differences between these and the true tall variety? Can you explain the results? There are no differences. The dwarf plants are small because they lack giberellins. If they are supplies, then they are normally tall. Tropisms: Change in the direction of growth of a plant  Auxins produce the changes in growth while gravity, unilateral light/touch cause them to occur Positive Gravitropism: the response of roots to gravity; grow downwards in response to gravity (the root tip responds) Negative Gravitropism: the response of shoots to gravity; grow upwards against gravity Phototropism: the response of plants to lights Thigmotropism: growth response of plants to touch  How do these plants respond to the stimulus of contact? As they grow taller, they will bend in the
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