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Lab 2 - Exam Review (Procedures).docx

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

LAB 2: Bacteria, Protists and Fungi Bacteria:  Occur almost everywhere  Equally diverse in their ecological function  Lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles Types of Bacteria: Coccus type: spherical in shape, may occur singly, in chains or clusters Bacillus type: rod shaped, may occur singly or in chains Spirillium: spirally curved rods, may occur singly, chains or clusters Algae (Plant-like Protists): Algae are a group of photosynthetic protists  Prescence of chlorophyll a  Reproductive structures which are single celled  No structures that can be regarded as roots, stems or leaves  Phytoplankton are floating algae of microscopic size  Important food resource in many countries LAB 2: Bacteria, Protists and Fungi Cell Division: Mitosis: two daughter cells are created, same number of chromosomes as parent Meiosis: four daughter cells, each have half the number of chromosomes are parent Haploid: single set of chromosomes Diploid: double set of chromosomes Same number of ploidy means the same number of chromosome sets. Oedogonium:  Multicellular organization in the form of un-branched chains of cells called a filament  Parenchymatous Thallus: undifferentiated body that is usually flat and prostrate  Contains vegetative cells which possess a single nucleus and net like chloroplasts Asexual reproduction: any cell can produce a motile zoospore, which will then divide by mitosis Sexual reproduction: Antheridia (male reproductive structure) release sperm to fertilize oogonia (female reproductive structure) each oogonium produces a single egg Homothallic: female and male structures are produced on the same filament Heterothallic: female and male structures are produced on different filaments Fertilization results in a diploid zygote; zygote undergoes meiosis resulting in four haploid zoospores that develop into new  oogonium filaments.  antheridia  vegetative cells LAB 2: Bacteria, Protists and Fungi Protozoans (Animal-like Protists):  Unicellular  Contain a food vacuole Amoeba:  Moves by pseudopods (false feet)  Portion of plasmagel weakens and the inner plasmasol follows into it, extending the pseudopod Food vacuoles: contain digestive  pseudopods enzymes, vacuoles shrink when food is digested as cytoplasm absorbs nutrients Pseudopods: extension of the  food vacuoles cytoplasm; used to move and surround  Nucleus food Contractile vacuole: collects water and dissolves metabolic waste Plasmasol: central mass of endoplasm (sol or fluid state) Plasmagel: outer portion of the endoplasm (gel state) Plasmalemma: thin, external
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