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Bio 112 review notes.odt

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
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Lecture 1CHNOPS make up more than 90 humanoften isotopes are radioactivehave a short half lifeWater is more dense because molecules are closer togetherLecture 2Ionic bonds form between biologyNaMgCaKie row 3 and 4 and ClPolar molecules tend to be hydrophilicionic or polar tend to dissolve in water due to hydrogen bondsNonpolar molecules are hydrophobicbecause they tend to aggregate with other nonpolar molecules in waterWater forces nonpolar molecules together which minimizes disruptive effects on hydrogen bonded water networkie balsamic vinegar olive oilMgCl2 stronger ionic bond so doesnt dissolve as easily in water as NaClOrder of Bond energy from greatest to weakestCovalent sharing of electron pairshydrogen attraction of opp chargesionic attraction of opp chargeshydrophobic exclusion of nonpolar molecules from waterVan der Waals interaction due to fluctuating electrical chargesLecture 3Plaque is an example of a bufferYoure ph stays the same even if you drink a lot of lemon juiceBody needs buffers for ex Dehymoglobin sensitive to pH cant carry oxygen at wrong phBuffers illustrate law of mass action Adding reactants accelerates the reactionLikewise removal of products accelerates reaction to the right sideTitration curves of weak acidsbases also tell you the protonation state at a given phex at a ph of 4 know CH3COOH is binded to H vs at 7 it is CH3COOHFunctional GroupsCarboxyl COOHClass of compounds carboxylic acidsStructural formula R bonded to COOHEx acetic acidHas a carbon backbone which is often called R or restCarboxyl group makes acetic acid a weak acidAmino NH2Class of compounds AminesR bonded to NH2Ex methyl amineHydroxyl OHClass of compounds alcoholsR bonded to OHEx ethanolAldehyde CHOClass of compounds aldehydesStructural formula R bonded to CHOEx ethanolKeto COClass of compounds ketonesStructural formula 2 R bonded to COEx acetonePhosphate PO42Class of compounds organic phosphatesStructural formula R bonded to PO42Ex 3phosphoglyceric acidSulfhydryl SHClass of compounds ThiolsStructural formula R bonded to SHEx mercaptoethanolLarge molcules are made up mostly of protein and then nucleic acids carbohydrates lipidsMacromolecules are made the same way in all living things and are present in roughly the same proportionsThis is why organisms require needed biochemical through eating other organismsAlso means aliens couldnt digest us because they would most likely have a different composition of sugars or amino acidsPolymerizationCondensationTwo monomers form a covalent bond that releases a molecule of wateralways catalyzed by a specific enzymeDepolymerizationHydrolysisthese reactions consume a molecule of water for each covalent bond brokenalso uses an enzymeIsomers same chemical formula different atom arrangements Structural isomers have a group attached to different carbon atomsOptical isomers have groups attached in dif Ways to the same carbon atomsAre mirror images of each other still structurally differentOccur when a carbon has 4 dif Atoms or groups attatched to itCarbohydratesenergy storage building blocks for other molecules nucleic acids structural components wood insect exoskeleton sometimes provide identity to cells human blood groups3 major categories monosaccharidesgen Formula for carb Monomer CH2Oex glucose C6H12O6Bonded together covalently by condensation reactionCalled glycosidic linkagesdisaccharidsthe gen Formula slightly different bc suring condensation water is removedglucose lactose maltose startch cellubiose cellulose wood can only be
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