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BIOL 115 Lecture Notes.doc

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McGill University
Biology (Sci)
BIOL 115

BIOL 115 Lecture NotesBIO LECTURE NOTES Midterm 1This course allows us to think critically about Biology in what we read about ScienceBiology in newsmagsetcBeing skeptical always asking questions always being ready to change your point of viewWhat is Science1A way of knowing things2A body of Knowledge accumulated through scientific investigationThe Scientific Way of Finding Things OutObservation then Question then Hypothesis informed guess then Experiments try to reject some hypotheses then ConclusionTheory if hypothesis comes to be recognized as broad and general like the cell theory So a broad intellectual construct supported by evidence that has explanatory powerScientific method at work Pasteur tests spontaneous generation Observation When you start with a sterile flask of sterile meat broth a growth of living material generally appears in the brothQuestion What is the source of the living materialHe had 2 Hypotheses 1 The living material came from nothing spontaneous generation 2 The living material is derived from living material outside the flaskPasteurs experiment He made an scurve in the neck of a flask with sterile broth in it so that any particles from the outside would not contact broth It remained sterile until he removed trap or tipped flask to mix trapped dust into brothThe situation where he doesnt breaktip the flask is called the control Compares results to thisConclusion No growth appears in the broth unless dust is admitted from outside No spontaneous generationExample of necessity of control Hemodynamic idea that if you tie off internal mammilaries in chest it will relieve anginas Was successful people had relief but some guy decided to do a control experiment Made incisions but didnt tie off vessels in some patients tied off vessels in others Discovered that there was no differenceAttributes of Living thingsHierarchy is bottom upAtoms smallest unit of a moleculeMolecule smallest unit of a compound that still fits the properties of the compoundCell Smallest unit of a living thingTissue a group of cells with a common structurefunctionOrgan compound of a number of tissues a bunch of tissuesOrganism The entire creaturePopulation Several organisms of same kind in a particular areaCommunity interacting populations in a particular areaEcosystem community plus environmentBiosphere Regions of the Earths crust waters and atmosphere inhabited by living thingsLiving things take in energy Major energy capturers are plants they capture energy from sunPlants capture from sun animals capture from plants animalsplants die and bacteriafungi capture that energy decomposition also other animals eat dead animalsHomeostasisliving organisms maintain their internal environment Maintain constant body temperature dogs pant humans sweat rabbits earsLiving systems respond to the environment nervous system smell vision hearing touch etcLiving organisms change over time They evolve Pigeons for example diff kinds produced with breeding DarwinBacteria resistant strainsCavalvade of Organisms various types of living thingsThere are three major domains of living thingsBacteria prokaryotessingle celled earliest organisms Archaea prokaryotessingle celled earliest organisms and Eukayra eukaryoteshave a nucleus Eukaryotes include plants fungi animals and protista single celledEUKARYOTE KINGDOMSAnimalia Multicellular Eukaryotic cells have nucleus Heterotrophic ingestion they eat stuff have complex organ systems like brain stomach heart digestive tract etcPlants Multicellular Eukaryotic cellulose cell walls Autotrophic they make their own energy by using sunlight Photosynthesis complex organ systems transport systems support systems reproductive organsFungi Tremendous source of pharmaceutical agents also some poisonous hallucinations Most are multicellular eukaryotic chitin cell walls chitin also makes up insect exoskeleton heterotrophs not injestion but absorption Secrete enzymes and absorb digested material tissues but not organ systems can be pathogenic can cause disease Eg ringworm athletes footProtistans Eukaryotes that are singlecelled for the most part Multicellular ones would be like kelp and seaweed Can be pathogenic sleeping sickness etc some are autotrophs algae with cell walls some heterotrophs ingestionPROKARYOTESBacteriaSpherical rodshaped helical Only some are pathogenic we are full of nonpathogenic bacteria unicellular do not have nucleus prokaryotes cell walls most are heterotrophic some are autotrophsArchaea Extremophiles Live in extreme conditions in methane high temperatures highly acidic environments etc Unicellular prokaryotes cell walls some autotrophic some chemotrophic use methane or sulphur compounds to generate energyVIRUSESBits of nucleic acid DNA or RNA surrounded by a shell of protein Sometimes theyll have a bit of cell membrane around them from the last cell they were inside Cant do anything on their own But when they get into a living system they take it over and use its elements to reproduce and then burst the cell and enter the environment One thing they can do is make more of themselves effectively Tricky question whether or not theyre living Most of the ones we know are pathogenic
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