BIOL 200 – Midterm Review, McGill University, Fall 2013 (Bureau/Roy)
1. What is the central dogma?
2. What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
3. How long is DNA?
4. How long is RNA?
5. What makes up a nucleotide?
6. What is a nucleoside?
7. What are the building blocks of polypeptides?
8. What are the six functions of proteins?
9. What are the two possible isomers of amino acids?
10. What are the four things that make up an amino acid?
11. What is special about Proline?
12. What is special about Glycine?
13. What is special about Cysteine?
14. What is the “backbone” composed of?
15. What is end to end orientation?
16. How is a phosphodiester bond made?
17. What is the orientation of the polynucleotide strands in the double helix?
18. What are bases stacked top of each other called?
19. What are Watson-Crick base pairs?
20. What is the use of the minor and major grooves in DNA?
21. What causes B DNA change to A DNA?
22. Which helices exist in A DNA?
23. What is special about Z DNA?
24. How long is Z DNA?
25. What is Z DNA a tag for?
26. What is special about B DNA?
27. What information does T gmve?
28. What is Tma function of?
29. Where is function derived from for proteins?
30. What is the N-terminus?
31. What is the C-terminus?
32. What causes a random coil to form?
33. Which way do R groups point in an alpha helix?
34. Which way do R groups point from pleated beta sheets?
35. Which amino acids are common in beta turns?
36. What is secondary structure mainly stabilized by?
37. What is tertiary structure mainly stabilized by? 38. What are motifs?
39. What binds to a coiled-coil motif?
40. What is often found in a coiled-coil motif?
41. What binds to an EF hand motif?
42. What binds to a Zinc-finger motif?
43. How many domains does Pyruvate kinease have?
44. What are the three ingredients needed for transcription?
45. What are the steps in transcription?
46. What is the purpose of RNA polymerase?
47. What does the sigma factor do?
48. How does the sigma factor do what it does?
49. What are the steps in translation?
50. What are the three types and roles of RNA?
51. What is the function of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase?
52. What are the wobble base pairs?
53. How does wobble base pairing work?
54. What are ribosomes composed of?
55. What are the steps in protein synthesis?
56. Through which mechanism does DNA proceed through?
57. What are the ingredients needed for nucleotide polymerization?
58. What is the replication fork?
59. What are the origins of replication?
60. What regions are rich in AT nucleotides?
61. What is the function of DNA helicase?
62. What does primase do?
63. What are Okazaki fragments?
64. How are Okazaki fragments formed?
65. What is the function of DNA ligase?
66. Where is the large T-antigen found?
67. What is the purpose of the large T-antigen?
68. What does RPA do?
69. What is the function of the Pol ε + Rfc + PCNA complex?
70. What does PCNA do?
71. What does the primase + Pol α complex do?
72. What does the Pol δ + Rfc + PCNA complex do?
73. What is the function of Ribonuclease H and FEN-1?
74. In which direction does DNA replication proceed?
75. How many replication origins does eukaryotic chromosomal DNA have? 76. What is the ORC?
77. What are mutations?
78. What are mutagens?
79. How does proofreading by DNA polymerase work?
80. Which DNA polymerases contain proofreading activity?
81. What does deamination of cytosine produced?
82. What does the methylation of cytosine lead to produce?
83. What are the four steps of Base Excision Repair?
84. What is Mismatch Excision Repair designed to fix?
85. What are the three steps of Mismatch Excision Repair?
86. What is Nucleotide Excision Repair designed to fix?
87. What are the four steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair?
88. What is Double-Strand Break Repair designed for?
89. What are the three steps of Double-Strand Break Repair by End Joining?
90. What is unique about Double-Strand Break Repair by End Joining?
91. What are the six steps of Double-Strand Break Repair by Homologous Recombination?
92. How many alterative resolutions of Holliday structures are possible?
93. How is the vector DNA formed?
94. What do restriction endonucleases do?
95. How are the transformed cells created from cells with the selected plasmids?
96. What are the four steps in DNA Cloning with Plasmids?
97. What are the four ingredients needed for PCR?
98. What is a cycle of PCR composed of?
99. Which ingredients are needed for the Dideoxy Chain-Termination Method of DNA Sequencing?
100. What do the ddNTPs do?
101. What is the purpose of electrophoresis?
102. How does gel electrophoresis work?
103. How does
104. What is a gene?
105. What does it mean to be polycistronic?
106. What are the two things added to the ends of eukaryotic transcripts?
107. What is the purpose of capping?
108. Which regions of DNA are untranslated?
109. What is an exon?
110. What is an intron? 111. What is the ORF?
112. What are control regions?
113. What do control regions contain?
114. What is the purpose of the Poly(A) site?
115. What is the purpose of the Cap site?
116. What does it mean for eukaryotic genes to be alternatively transcribed and processed?
117. What is a gene family?
118. Why is gene duplication an important process in evolution?
119. What are pseudogenes?
120. What are UTRs?
121. What is a promotor?
122. What are CRMs?
123. What are the three types of CRMs?
124. What is the difference between cis-regulatory and trans-regula