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vocab (final).docx

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Biology (Sci)
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BIOL 200
Francois Fagotto

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BIOL 200- Vocabulary (Final) 30-nm Fibres: The 30nm fiber is the DNA in its interphase state. The DNA is wrapped around the histone complex and then is twisted into a solenoid structure, the 30 nm fiber. Acetylation: The histones are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N- terminal tail and on the surface of the nucleosome core as part of gene regulation. Acetylation removes the positive charge on the histones, thereby decreasing the interaction of the N termini of histones with the negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA. As a consequence, the condensed chromatin is transformed into a more relaxed structure that is associated with greater levels of gene transcription. Alu Sites: Antisens: Antisense DNA is the non-coding strand complementary to the coding strand in double-stranded DNA. The antisense strand serves as the template for messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis. Centromeres; A centromere is a region on a chromosome that joins two sister chromatids. Chromatid: Either of the two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome that are joined by a single centromere and separate during cell division to become individual chromosomes Chromosome: Microscopic rod-shaped structures that appear in a cell nucleus during cell division, consisting of nucleoprotein arranged into units (genes) that are responsible for the transmission of hereditary characteristics Construct: A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is going to be "transplanted" into a target tissue or cell. It often contains a DNA insert, which contains the gene sequence encoding a protein of interest, that has been subcloned into a vector, which contains bacterial resistance genes for growth in bacteria, and promoters for expression in the organism. DNA fingerprinting: A technique for comparing the nucleotide sequences of fragments of DNA from different sources. The fragments are obtained by treating the DNA with various endonucleases, enzymes that break DNA strands at specific sites.; A method used to identify multilocus DNA banding patterns that are specific to an individual by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to molecular probes and various analytical techniques such as Southern blot analysis. DNA Transposons: A small mobile genetic (DNA) element that moves around the genome or to other genomes within the same cell, usually by copying itself to a second site but sometimes by splicing itself out of its original site and inserting in a new location. Eukaryotic transposons are sometimes called transposable elements. Euchromatin: Chromosomal material that consists of uncoiled dispersed threads during interphase, is genetically active, and stains lightly with basic dyes. Gene Families: A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions. Genes are categorized into families based on shared nucleotide or protein sequences. Gene: A segment of DNA, occupying a specific place on a chromosome, that is the basic unit of heredity. Genes act by directing the production of RNA, which determines the synthesis of proteins that make up living matter and are the catalysts of all cellular processes. Gene Knockout/Conditional knockout: Genome: A genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of virus, in RNA. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA. Helicase: An enzyme involved in DNA replication, responsible for unwinding the double helix. Heterochromatin: The part of the chromonema that remains tightly coiled and condensed during interphase and thus stains readily. Heterozygotes; The genes for a specific trait are different. Histone: In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei, which package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief protein components of chromatin, act as spools around which DNA winds, and play a role in gene regulation. Homozygote; An organism with identical pairs of genes (or alleles) for a specific trait. If both of the two gametes (sex cells) that fuse during fertilization carry the same form of the gene for a specific trait, the organism is said to be homozygous for that trait. In Situ Hybridization: Molecular hybridization used to analyze prepared cells or histologic sections in situ in order to analyze the intracellular or intrachromosomal distribution, transcription, or other characteristics of specific nucleic acids. Interphase:
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