Properties of Water
Explain why a water molecule is polar.
It is caused by the chemical structure of the water. Hydrogen’s electrons tend to be more
attracted to oxygen’s nucleus because it has more protons. Because electrons have a negative
charge, this results in a water molecule that has a positive on the side where the hydrogen atoms
are, and a negative charge on the other side where the oxygen atom is. Because of this property,
water is said to be a polar molecule. It has a positive side and a negative side.
Draw a water molecule and show the charges
Using the idea of polarity, explain why water exhibits these properties: adhesion, cohesion,
Adhesion: attraction between difficult kinds of molecules. Ex: H2O and glass water in tube
stuck to it b/c polar.
Cohesion: attraction between the same kinds of molecules. Ex: H20 and H20 stick together
b/c attracted by different charges
Surface tension: caused by the attraction of water molecules at the water’s surface (cohesion)
Use diagrams to show the properties listed above
Explain why water forms drops
Because of cohesion there is a creation of surface tension which makes a drop.
Compare properties of water with properties of a nonpolar liquid
Alcohol does not have polar molecules therefore there is no cohesion or surface tension
Explain what a meniscus is and why it forms differently in a glass and plastic container
Water molecules have polarity and creates adhesion with glass molecules, so the water climbs the
sides a little bit. With plastic the adhesion is not so strong.
Explain capillary action in a glass tube and on filter paper
Surface adhesion between water molecules and glass of the tube...same with the paper adhesion
between the paper and water molecules.
Explain examples of interactions between the properties of water and living things
Water rises from the roots to the top of a tree through the adhesion between the water molecules
and the tree molecules. 2
Insects can walk on water because of the cohesion between the water molecules that causes
Levels of biological organization
Ecosystem: a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their
environment – all the living things and physical components in an area (e.g. the squirrels, trees,
birds, ants, soil, rocks, water in Parc La Fontaine)
Community: A group of plants and animals living and interacting with one another in a specific
region under relatively similar environmental conditions – all living things in an area (e.g. the
squirrels, trees, birds, ants, etc. in Parc La Fontaine)
Population: all the individuals of one species in a given area. – a group of one kind of living
things in an area (e.g. the squirrels in Parc La Fontaine)
Organism: An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus; a
body made up of organs, organelles, or other parts that work together to carry on the various
processes of life – a living thing (e.g. a squirrel)
System: a group or combination of interrelated, interdependent, or interacting elements forming
a collective – an organism made of systems (e.g. excretory system)
Organ: a part of an organism that is typically selfcontained and has a specific vital function – a
system is made of organs (e.g. heart or liver)
Cell: the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and
consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically
consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic – organs are made of cells (e.g.
Molecules: a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a
chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction – cells are made of molecules (e.g.
Atom: the basic unit of a chemical element —molecules are made of atoms (e.g. C)
Ecosystem: All the living things and all the nonliving components in an area
Biotic: living things, organisms: plants, animals, 3
Abiotic: nonliving things: soil, rock, rain, etc.
*often called the environment
Explain how populations become adapted to their habitat through natural selection.
(Include selective pressure, differential survival and differential reproduction).
Living things are adapted so that they “fit” into their environment, in order to ensure survival.
An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its
Over time, genetic traits that enable greater survival and greater reproduction become more
common in the population over time. This is how organisms develop adaptations –Theory of
Wikipedia: Natural selection is the gradual process by which biological traits become either
more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the
differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environment.
Selection pressure: Recall heart disease example in class – pressure from the environment was
from the disease
Wikipedia: selective pressure can be produced by any aspect of the environment,
including sexual selection and competition with members of the same or other species. However,
this does not imply that natural selection is always directional and results in adaptive evolution;
natural selection often results in the maintenance of the status quo by eliminating less fit
Differential survival: in class – some survived others did not
Recall: Survival of the Fittest
Differential reproduction: class: survivors reproduced
Biology Forum: the idea that those organisms best adapted to a given environment will most
likely survive to reproductive age and have offspring of their own. Organisms that are successful
in their own environment, are successful in reproduction, therefore betteradapted organisms
will reproduce at a greater rate than the less welladapted ones
Interpret population graphs that show natural selection
Explain how resistance develops in populations of bacteria or bedbugs
Class Notes: bacteria that are immune to the effects of the antibiotic are the ones that survive and
Their offspring inherit this resistance and they survive and reproduce…and so on 4
Many bedbugs are no longer affected by insecticides, why is this so? There may have already
been some bedbugs that were resistant in the initial population that reproduced to pass on this
Discuss evidence for the theory of natural selection (e.g. Moths in England)
Class Notes: Before the late 1800s, most (but not all) moths had light colouration that provided
camouflage against light coloured trees and lichens.
During the industrial revolution, pollution cause trees to darken and killed the light coloured
lichens on the trees.
Why role did predators (birds) play? Light coloured moths were unable to camouflage as lichen
was destroyed by pollution and trees became darker making light coloured moths more visible.
Which moths survived? Dark coloured moths as they were able to camouflage against the newly
Explain which of these statements is correct and why: “Organisms adapt to their
environment.” OR “Populations of organisms adapt to their environment.”
▯Populations of organisms adapt to their environment (Lab #5)
Explain what a niche is; recognize examples of organisms behind adapted to particular
A particular role or position that an organism fills, how the organism “makes a living”
Distinguish between physical adaptations and behavioural adaptations
Physical Adaptation: A changing characteristic of an organism that enables it to survive in a
particular environment; these changes usually happen very gradually over generations – a turtle
Behavioural Adaptation: A thing that organisms do to survive in a particular environment, such
as the way they feed, breed, or move. – Layering up in 40 weather
Compare natural selection and artificial selection
Natural Selection: the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to
survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by
Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution (Google).
Artificial Selection: Class Notes: a process in which humans consciously select for or against
particular features in organisms
Selective breeding is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular
Classification of living things 5
Recognize the sequence of classification: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,
King Phillip Came Over For Guacamole Stew
Explain the role of classification systems through history and why classification systems
differ and change
Class Notes: based on observations, function, and inference and recognition of patterns
Has changed over time, new technology is now used
Explain how and why the number of Kingdoms has changed over time
Class Notes: Originally 2 Animal and Plant) ▯Fungi ▯Protista ▯Monera (Bacteria – Prokaryotes
and Eukaryotes) – breaks down to Eubacteria and Archaea
New discoveries, observation, and tools…
Recognize examples of each Kingdom
Plant Animal Fungi Protista – prokaryotic cells
Multicellular Multicellular Multi or unicellular Single eukaryotic Eubacteria
Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells cell; some form True bacteria
Photosynthesize Ingest food Absorb food from chains or colonies Microbes
Most have leaves decaying Absorb, ingest, Some cause disease
organisms and/or Others used to
Mushrooms, photosynthesize make yogurt
molds, mildew, food
yeast and lichen Things swimming Archaea
around in pond Microbes that live
water under in extreme
Explain how plants and animals differ
Plants generally are rooted in one place and do Most animals have the ability to move freely
not move on their own
Plants contain chlorophyll and can make their Animals cannot make their own food and are
own food dependent on plants and other animals for food
Plants give off oxygen and take in carbon Animals give off carbon dioxide which plants 6
dioxide given off by animals need to make food, and take in oxygen in
which they need to breathe
Plant cells have cell walls and other structures Animal cells do not have cell walls and have
that differ from those of animals different structures than plants
Plants have either no or very basic ability to Animals have a much more highly developed
sense sensory and nervous system
Explain how mold differs from plants
Mold is classified in the fungi kingdom, it generally grows in the dark and unlike plants, it
reproduces through spores and feeds on organic material and matter
Explain what is unique about lichens
They do not have leaves, usually gray or graying, green, white, or orange, often crusty, crunchy
Some grown like a crust on rock, some form stalks, some have odd branching shapes
In the fungi kingdom ▯Lichen = fungus + algae
Symbiotic relationship longterm interaction between two or more different biological species
Fungi cannot photosynthesize
Algae lives within them, and algae photosynthesizes
Distinguish between bacteria and other living things
One of the major and most visible differences between prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes
(everything else) is the presence of a membrane bound nucleus containing DNA. Eukaryotes
have other membrane bound organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria and prokaryotes
do not (wiki answers) ▯bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus
Describe the characteristic of living things
Made of cells
Obtain and use energy
Show some kind of movement
Reacts to changes around them
Discuss why viruses are generally considered to be nonliving
They cannot reproduce on their own, can't use energy, can’t move on their own, cant respond to
stimulus, and they don’t have cells or cellular parts
Not considered living by most scientists, not classified in any kingdom, but they can evolve, then
DNA/RNA changes 7
Movement in living things
Recognize examples of the Big Idea of form and function.
• Form and function are related. Form shapes function, and function shapes form.
• Things look the way they do because of what they do, and how they do it.
• This is true objects, organisms, and systems in the natural and designed world.
• The importance of form and function is seen in both living and nonliving things, at all
levels from micro to macro.
• Adaptations of organisms, design of objects, and properties of matter are examples of the
relationship between forma and function.
Discuss the statement: all living things move.
All living things need to move for the same reasons that animals need to move
Identify the reasons why animals move.
To obtain food, to reproduce, to protect themselves, to regulate body temperature
Compare types of animal skeletons (endo, exo, and calcareous shells). Recognize examples.
Endoskeleton – Internal Exoskeleton – External Calcareous Shell – External
Made of bone Made of chitin Made of calcium and other
Living tissue (cells, nerves, Nonliving substance minerals
blood supply) Polysaccharide Nonliving substance; growth
Bones can grown and lengthen Cannot expand rings often visible
Bones can repair themselves
Examples: Mammals, Examples: insect, crab Examples: clam, oyster, mussel,
reptiles, amphibians snail
Explain how an organism’s structure, movement, and habitat are interrelated.
Relationship between form and function ▯types of movement (function), structure of organism
(adaptation, form), habitat
▯From Lab #5: an organism’s structure, form of movement, and habitat are closely interrelated.
Through natural selection, populations of organisms have become adapted for movement in their
Demonstrate how muscles and skeleton (both endo and exo) work together to enable an
organism to move.
Muscles create movement by exerting a force on a rigid skeleton of some type
Explain why some animals molt. 8
To grow a new layer of skin, they shed the older worn out layer of skin in order to grow a
stronger, more durable one, and the process repeats when that one becomes worn out
Explain why a turtle is said to have an endoskeleton.
A turtle’s shell is part of their endoskeleton
Made of bones (ribs, vertebrae, and clavicle)
Inner layers of shell have cells and blood vessels
Outer surface is made or keratin (protein) like our fingernails, secreated by the cells underneath
Explain where the energy for animal movement comes from.
Chemical energy in food
Explain animal motion in terms of forces.
3. Air resistance
4. Friction with the ground
Recognize the adaptations of a cheetah for movement in its habitat.
1. Small aerodynamic head
2. Flexible spine for long strides
3. Long flat tail for high speed cornering
4. Light body weight for maximum speed
5. Long legs for long strides
6. Ridged paws with claws always out for increased grip/traction
Give examples of types of movement in plants and other organisms.
Types of movement: from place to place, mobile stages in life cycle (barnacles), internal
movement within an organism (sap flowing), movement in place (plant growing towards the
Explain why certain things, which are commonly called vegetables, and are classified by
botanists as fruits.
According to botanists, a fruit is the part of the plant that develops from a flower. It's also the
section of the plant that contains the seeds. The other parts of plants are considered vegetables.
These include the stems, leaves and roots — and even the flower bud.
▯Lab #4: According to botanists, a fruit is the part of a plant that develops from a flower. A fruit
is the reproductive part of a plan and contains the seeds, which can grow into new plants. 9
Recognize form and function in plant parts.
• Leaves: photosynthesis
o Main organs of photosynthesis and gas exchange
o Can have many different colours, surfaces and textures
o Plants use sunlight and CO 2from the air to make glucose C6H12 6
Need chlorophyll, a green pigment and water to do this
o All plants have adaptation that allow them to photosynthesize and survive in their
o CO +2 O 2 Chlorophyll + Sunlight ▯C H 6 12O 2
o Chloroplasts in plant cells – contain chlorophyll
o Stomates – pores on a leaf’s surface that open and close – carbon dioxide enters
and oxygen exits
• Stem: support
o The stalks of a plant
o Provides support for leaves, flowers, fruit, and seeds
o Thick succulent stems with thorns or spines; no real leaves
o Succulent leaves with very short stem
• Roots: absorb water and minerals from soil
o The part of a plant that anchors it to the ground or to another support
o Has numerous branches and fibers, usually underground
o Absorbs water and minerals
• Flowers: sexual reproduction
• Seeds & Fruit: distribution
What is wrong with the ways science has commonly been taught in elementary schools?
It’s too structured, and by the book…no room for exploration
o Teachers give information, definitions, explanations and students give information back
on tests and assignments
o Worksheets – focus on terms and definition
o Cookbook labs – follow direction and get expected results
o Handson and fun, but does not require thinking and sense making
What is ambitious science teaching?
• Teaching towards an instructional goal
• Eliciting and responding appropriately to student thinking
o Pressing, revoicing
• Orienting students to each other’s ideas 10
• Positioning students competently
• Establishing and maintaining expectations for student participation
• Representing student thinking and key ideas
• Using a public record of student thinking
What are the Principles and Practices of Ambitious Science Teaching?
Principles for Ambitious Teaching Practices for Ambitious Teaching
• Children are sensemakers • Teaching towards an instructional goal
• Teachers must design instruction for all • Eliciting and responding appropriately
children to do rigorous academic work to student thinking
in school and have equitable access to o e.g. pressing or revoicing
learning • Orienting student to each other’s ideas
• Ambitious instruction requires clear • Positioning students completely
instruction goals • Establishing and maintaining
• The measure of good teaching is expectations for student participation
• Representing student thinking and key
• Teachers must be responsive to the ideas
requirements of the school environment • Using a public record of student
Explain the relevance of Piaget’s Developmental Stages to teaching science.
Children go through various stages of development, building and retaining information as they
pass through each stage.
Experience is the source of al learning and development
Children are “little scientists,” actively constructing their own ideas about the world, testing
these ideas, and adjusting to new information
Explain the Learning Cycle and how it is related to a 3E lesson.
Starts with concrete experiences ▯critical reflection on experience (questioning: search and
select information) ▯general principles (thinking)
Emphasis on DOING science and the promotion of inquiry skills, rather than definitions of terms
and recall of information
3E lesson ▯Engage, Explore, Explain
1. Concrete experience
2. Observation and reflection
3. Forming abstract concepts
4. Testing in new situations 11
Recognize and use productive questions.
• Attentionfocusing question
o What do you notice?
o Have you seen?
• Measuring and counting question?
o How many?
o How much?
o How long?
o How often?
• Comparison Question
o How is that different than…?
o In what ways is it like…?
• Action question?
o How about if you…?
o What happens if…?
o These encourage students to try simple variations, for example to hold a magnet
in a different position to see what happens
• Problemposing question?
o Can you find a way to…?
o These questions are a bit more sophisticated. They set up a problem students will
need to solve, for example to see if they can make a stronger static charge on an
Recognize and use appropriate discourse moves.
o For descriptions and observations
Clarifying – can you tell me more about what you notice?
Attention focusing – what do you notice?
Measuring and counting – how long is it?
Comparing – do you see that in any of the others?
Noticing patterns – are there others that were the same?
o For explanations
Can you tell me more about what you are thinking?
Does anyone thinking of it a different way?
Can someone who has another idea explain their idea?
o For evidence or reason
How did you decide that?
Why do you say that?
What is your evidence for saying that? 12
• Revoicing students ideas
o I hear you saying that…
• Challenging student thinking
o So you’re saying that _______; but wouldn’t that mean that ________?
• Refraining from evaluating student responses
• Orienting students to each other’s thinking
• Connecting student ideas
• Scaffolding everyday and scientific language
o Can you explain that using the idea of force? An example from your life?
Distinguish between concrete and abstract questions.
Concrete: refers to concepts, ideas or things that you can see, hear, touch, taste, or smell
Abstract: opposite of concrete
In order from concrete to abstract:
What do you notice about this shadow? (Pointing to a shadow).
Who can find a shadow in the room?
Who saw a shadow on their way to school today and can tell me about it?
Where have you seen shadows?
What do you think causes shadows?
Recognize examples of how scaffolding can support student learning.
Differentiate and use these science process skills: Observe, infer, predict, hypothesize,
interpret data, group or classify, order or rank, compare, notice patterns
Use claims, evidence, and reasoning to form scientific explanations.
Claim: state or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof
E.g. wind and heat both increased the evaporation rate, wind more than heat
Evidence: the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is
true or valid
E.g. With the fan, the water evaporated in less than 2 minutes. With the heat lamp, the water
evaporated about 5 minutes. The control took almost 10 minutes.
Explain the purpose of these lesson parts: Engage, Explore, Explain.
• Engage: goal is to motivate students about the topic, and elicit initial student thinking
• Explore: goal is to make and record observations, and begin to notice patterns in data
• Explain: goal is to develop evidencebased explanations to answer the initial question,
and to solidify other instructional goals
Design a graphic organizer to meet an instructional goal. 13
A visual representation that shows knowledge, concepts, ideas or other information arranged in a
way that makes the relationship between them more visible
Organizes the information in ways that help the student make sense of it, notice, and remember
the important things
e.g. venn diagrams, webs, concept maps
Consider the science understanding and science skills you want students to develop
The graphic organizer should facilitate those understandings and skills
What is the QEP science competency for Cycle 1?
To explore the world of science and technology
To become familiar with scientific and technological ways of reasoning and doing things
To learn to use simple tools and procedures
To become familiar with certain aspects of the languages used in science and technology
What are the QEP science