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Final

BIOL 201 Final Notes.docx

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Department
Biology (Sci)
Course
BIOL 201
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
BIOL201FinalNotesRatekABratekCDKkkforward1reverse2eq12GinfluencebytemperaturepressureconcentrationofreactantsproductspHGGproductsGreactantsAreactionwillonlyoccurifGisnegativemeaningtheGofreactantsGofproducts0GGunderstandardconditions1atm25CpH70whenreactantsproducts1M00GG2303RTlogCDABG1362logKeqStandardfreeenergyvaluesareadditive0GforATPhydrolysisis73kcalmolCRateratechangesasreactionproceedsforwardreverseCatalystsacttoacceleratetheratesofreactionsbyreducingGsuchthatthereactantscannowreachthetransitionstateEnzymesdonotaffectKGtheyonlyaffecttheratesofreactioneqEnzymevelocityabilitytoformproducts12VSatwhichenzymeactivesitesmaxsaturatedMicahelisconstantKcharacteristicofenzymedescribesaffinityforsubstratemoVVSSKmaxmLineweaverBurkplotaccuraterepresentationofKVforanygivenenzymemmaxo1VKV1S1V0mmaxmaxProcessofphotosynthesiscapturelightanduseittotransferHatomsfromwatertoacceptormoleculesformmolecularO2synthesizeATPtransferHatomsfromacceptormoleculetocarbonscomingfromC02toformglucosecarbonfixationLightreactions2HO2NADP3ADP3PO2H2NADPH3ATP2i2CalvincycleCO2H2NADPH3ATPCHOHO2NADP3ADP3P222iPhotosynthesisoccursinmesophyllcellswhichcontainchloroplastoLightreactionsthylakoidmembraneseachstackgranumarelocatedinsidechloroplastsoCalvincyclestromastillinsidethecholorplastbutjustoutsideofthethylokoidmembraneChloroplastoutermembranepermeabletomanythingsinnermembraneantiporteruptakeofP3carbonsugarsoutiLightabsorptionenergytransformationoPhotopigmentschrlorophyllabringwhydrophobictailembeddedinthylakoidmembrane2MginthemiddlecarotenoidsbetacaroteneoActionspectrummeasureofOproductionrepresentsrateofphotosynthesis2oAfterlightabsorptionhighenergyelectronscanfallbackdownanenergylevelusualfateundergoenergyresonancetransferorbetransferredtoanacceptormoleculeCarotenoidsincviablewavelengthsforLHCsactasantioxidantstoreducedamagetorxncenterPurplesulphurbacteriaoCyclicelectronflow2photonshitP960specialpairchlorophyllsbecomingP960BPhQQAB2Qpicksup2protonsQHtravelsinsideplasmamembranetocytcomplexB2QHlosesprotonstoperiplasmicspaceloseselectronstocytcomplexmobilecytc2CyttransferselectronstoP960ProtonsinperiplasmicspacepumpedbyFFATPsynthase10oLinearpathwayHSsplittoprovideelectronsATPNADHproduced2PSIIchargeseparationHO680nmPSIchargeseparationPc700nm2redLightreactionsthylakoidmembraneo4photonsactivateP680electronsspecialchlorophyllapickupelectronsfromHO2Oevolvingcomplexcontains4Mnatomscanexistinmultipleoxidationstates2TheprotonsstrippedfromwatergotothelumenofthethylakoidoP680PhQQQreducedtwicetoQHdiffusestocytbfcomplexmovesfromPSIIcytABB2bfthroughthethylakoidmembraneoQHoxidizedinQcyclemoreHpumpingHreleasedtolumenelectronspassedtoPc2plastocyaninwhichgoesfromcytbftoPSIoElectronenergytoolowuponarrivalatPSItoreduceNADP2photonsactivateP700pickupelectronsfromPcoPSIactivatedelectronsflowthroughchlorophyllsPhQ4Fe4ScenterstoreduceFeSFdoFdNADPreductasereducesNADPwelectronsfromFd1eatatimewcofactorFADFFATPsynthase4HrequiredperATPinchloroplasts10oHighHinthethylakoidlumenlowHinthestromaoThylakoidmembraneispermeablepHdifferencemoreimportantthanionicgradientoYoujustneedaprotongradienttomakeATPyoudontneedlightRegulationoflightreactionsoCyclicphotophosphorylationPSIIindependentOccurswhenNADPHhighmakesATPbutdoesntaccumulateNADPHNADPHoxidizedbyNdhelectronsreduceQtoQHdiffusestocytbfonwards2NeteffectpumpingprotonstolumenDifferenceelectronstakenfromNADPHnotHO2FunctionbalancedemandofCalvincycleforNADPHATPHighlevelsofNADPHwillblockETCsoyouneedtooxidizeNADPHtokeepETCworkingNADPHisoxidizedbyNADPHdehydrogenasethispullselectronoffofNADPHandtransfersthemtocytbfcomplexandthentoPSISoinsteadofgettingelectronsfromwateryouaregettingelectronsthatyoujustjustputontheNADPHtakingthemoffandthenusingthemtopumpproteinsandgetATPoLinearelectronflowDifferentialassociationofLHCIIUnphosphorylatedformofLHCIIpreferentiallyassociateswPSIIinthethylakoidmembranewhichincreasesefficiencyoflinearpathwaymoreNADPHATPAccumulationofQHatcytbfcomplexleadstophosphorylationofLHCII2PhosphorylatedforofLHCIIisdissociatedfromPSIIdiffusestounstackedportionsofthylakoidmembranehelpsdrivecyclicelectronflowCalvincyclecarbonfixationstromaoRubisco6CO6Ru15BP5C123PGA3C2o123PGA1213BPGA12ATPo1213BPGA12G3P12NADPH2G3Ptocytosol2Pimportedthroughphosphatetriosephosphateantiporterio10G3Pthrough7enzymes6Ru5P4Pio6Ru5P6Ru15BP6ATPNetCalvincycle6CO12H18ATP12NADPHCHO18ADP18P26126iPhotorespirationoCarboxylation75
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