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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 307
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BIOL307FINALNOTES04092012Tinbergens Four Questions Proximate causationcauses of a trait during a single lifetime mechanismlesion studies for area of brain developmentontogenybabies 1 period or learn all the time ultimate causationevolutionary causes of a trait functionaffect reproductive successis it loudest or most complicated song that increases success evolutionhow did it evolvephylogeny History Darwin instinct anecdotes emotionsintelligenceinstinct and tried to show animals can produce human behavior Clever HansBehaviorist nurture revolutionexperiments on learning Ethology nature not capable of quantitative predictionsobservations and experiments on instinct chicks and red spotsextreme versions better therefore basis for sex selective traits lambmother imprint expt by Lorenz control because 0 experiencebehave ecolsociobiolcostbenefit predictions on behavioral strategiescrash of ethology because of bee dance altruismOld vs new paradigm aggressioninnate but can be changed with rewardpunishmentdepends on relation and immediate costbenefits for defense kin relation animal wouldnt leave site with food left for anotherdiminishing returns at one site with unexpected food at others courtship innate and speciesspecificcourt in most adaptive wayalternative strategies that decrease benefits of those using main modeBehavioural Ecology functionuse of evol and evol processes to explain adaptive significance of behavior patterns predict ecological patterns empiricalcomparative analyses relating behavior to envtProblems in studying behavior anthropomorphism animals as people anthropocentrism visual tests for rats when smells better anecdotes single observation used as evidence design and interpret studies consideration of alternate hypothesesKeep in mind parsimonymost simple explanation unless not possibleEthogram catalogue of behavior patterns of a speciesData reliability Biases caused by observersExpectancy effectsClever HansDisturbance effect hide video etcDemonstrator differenceinfluenceInterIntra observer reliability3 criteria for adaptive evolution heritable variation in traits variations in rep success trait correlated withsuccess without this last one can get evolution just called neutral evolutionImplications of Evol theory lifetime rep success RS not survival drives natural selection fitness is relative RSalleles dont have to be best for f to increasejust better than competing therefore traits dont act for the good of the speciesjust increase RS group selection likely to be weak in comparison to indiv selection selfish mutants can invadeAdaptation character favoured by natural selection for its effectiveness in a particular rolediff from adaptive behavior that increases rep success ADAPTIVEADAPTATION No Yes Current Adaptation YesPast AdaptationNo Dysfunctional Byproduct ExaptationNiche construction active role of behavior in ecolearthworms change soil and that soil is inherited by next gen of worms environmental evolutionCritique of Pinker multiple meanings of the terms innate and instinctDevelopmental plasticity geneenvt same gen and depending on where you plant it develops differently into different looking phenotypesMobbing reed warblers genetic predisposition to learn to mob cuckoosif watch parrot dont mob either speciesRatmaternal care affects stress responses and can be transmitted non genetically across generations Epigenetic inheritancecross fostering experimentsin enriched high licking Allows mother to program pups for whatever envt they are being born into adaptive programming hypothesisBehaviourenvt has affected geneticslactose toleranceSmaller pvalueless likely pattern occurred by chance Type 1 errorreject Ho incorrectly type 2accept Ho incorrectlyTesting PredictionsExperimental smaller groups show increased vigilance and decreased risky foraging by comparing groups with prairie dogs removed not removed and removed but replacedObservational test by comparing nat occurring groups of diff sizesComparative need phylo info and test by comparing diff species or diff genetically isolated pops that had diff average group sizesFundamental assumption of behave ecolindivs expected to be designed by nat selection to behave in ways which best promote their genetic contribution to future gens through own rep or helping relatives to repGouldspandrelscant assume every trait is an adaptationAdaptive storytellingjust so storiesexplanation without reasoningTradeoffsDrosophilaearly egg drop off die earlierOpportunity costs doing one thing reduces opp for something else energy costs survival costs risk of mortality from predators parasites etcNet benefits nat selection should favour trait that maxs net bensConstraints if trait not well adaptedeyes worked a little bit so must work with what it has gene flow time etcOptimality Models seek to predict which tradeoff of costs and benefits will give the max net benefit to an indiv economic analysis
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