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McGill University
CHEM 181
David Harpp

Lecture9-Pesticides 1. What is GM? What are the 2 classical ways to modify crops? What % of processed food in Canada comes from GM crops? What crops? 2. What is horizontal transfer? Vertical transfer? 3. What was the first commercial use of GM? How? First medical application? 4. What are output traits? What are some examples? What are input traits? Which one is more used, and why? What are input traits mainly used for? 5. What is a first generation pesticide? 6. What was used to combat malaria? How many lives were saved, and who discovered the cure? 7. What are second generation pesticides? What is the problem? What happens over time? 8. What chemicals were used after insects became resistant to DDT? When was DDT banned? What was its effects on humans, and why? 9. What is the #1 cancer in women, and the #1 killer? 10. What are breast cancer risk factors? 11. What did the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project find? 12. What did the Stockholm Convention on Persistant Organic Pollutants do? What happened to malaria death rates? Where is DDT still allowed? 13. What are 3rd generation pesticides? What are some examples? What industrial incident happened in Bhophal, India? 14. How many deaths do pesticides cause a year? How? 15. What are chlorpyrifos? 16. What are 4th generation pesticides? 17. What is Bt? Why was it genetically engineered? 18. How many countries use GM crops? What countries makes up 92%? 19. Why was canola made? What gene was inserted in it? What was the benefit of this? 20. Are GM crops safe? Why is BT toxin safe? 21. What did Zambia do in 2002? 22. What study did Gilles-Eric Seralini do? Why was his study rejected? 23. How can GM affect allergenicity of food? Give two examples. 24. How does toxicity to non-target species occur? What study was carried out, and by who? What did the study find? 25. What is refuging, and why is it done? 26. How does development of resistance to pesticide occur? How do you prevent this? 27. What is the super salmon? 28. What are "super-weeds"? 29. How does gene transfer to related species occur? How do you solve the problem? 30. What is the major problem with GM? What % of soya in Brazil is GM? 31. What are challenges to GM crops? 32. What did Percy Schmeiser do? 33. What is BT wheat, and why wasn't it developed? 34. What is the problem with labelling? 35. What is the Precautionary Principle? 36. What is Integrated Pest Management? What is used? What are 4 other ways its done? 37. What is a pheromone? How is it used? 38. What is organic farming? What is the difference compared to normal farming? 39. What % of the population was involved in food production in 1860 versus today? Why is this a problem? 40. What is the % of income going to food in the US, india, and mexico? Lecture10-Sweeteners 1. How much of the world's non-nutritive sweeteners does the US consume? 2. Who discovered Saccharin? What taste does it have? What is its sweetness and caloric value? Who brought it to the US? What was the company? 3. What was discovered in a Canadian study on saccharin? Is it banned in Canada/US? 4. What was the Delaney Clause? When was saccharin removed from the carcinogens list? 5. What is the formula for risk? 6. What are sugar alcohols? Name some examples. How sweet is sorbitol and how many calories? 7. What is cyclamate and who discovered it? What is its sweetness and calories? Why was it banned? What is its ban state in Canada vs the US? 8. What is in Sweet N Low in Canada vs US? 9. Who discovered aspartame? What amino acids is it made of? What is released when its metabolized? When is it a problem? What is its sweetness and calories? 10. What are some negative features of aspartame? Is it toxic? How many mg of methanol is in a soft drink? Fruit drinks? 11. What anecdotal evidences are associated with aspartame? 12. What is aspartame broken down into? What diseases has it been associated to, and has it been proved? 13. Is there a link between aspartame and brain tumour? Why or why not? 14. What are ADI and NOAEL? What are they for aspartame? What is the average daily intake per kg? How many cans would a 70kg man have to drink a day to reach the ADI and NOAEL? 15. What did the Ramazzini Institute study find? How did foot authorities eventually respond to this study? 16. What did the Informa Healthcase Study find? What did the EFSA do in 2012? 17. What is Sugar Twin in the US vs Canada? 18. What is the sweetener used in Diet Coke vs Coke Zero? 19. What is the sweetness of acesulfame K and calories? 20. What is Splenda? How is its structure similar to sucrose? What is its sweetener and how many calories? Who discovered it? 21. What is Stevia? What is its sweetness and how many calories? What was it originally used for? What is it currently used for? 22. What will Cola Cola and Pepsi sell stevia as? 23. Does use of sweeteners reduce caloric intake? Lecture11-DietandCancer 1. What are 3 main treatments for cancer? 2. How much have cancer survival rates risen recently? When was the Cancer Milestone? What is the explanation? What are the most common cancers? 3. What vaccine strategies are being researched? What has the FDA recently approved and what does it do? 4. What is the general trend of cancer death rates? In what types of cancers is it decreasing? 5. How much is the reduction in colorectal cancer per year? Roughly how long will it take to half the rate of colorectal cancer? 6. What cancer rate is increasing in women? Where are melanomas of the skin most frequent? 7. What happens to rate of cancer in ages over 65? 8. What are the main causes of premature cancer? 9. What are the main risk factors for death? 10. In North America, what are the main types of cancer? 11. What did a Women's Health Initiative study find on cancer? A JAMA study? 12. Does a low fat diet reduce risk of cancer? 13. Define the terms mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic. What is thalidomide? 14. What is angiogenesis? What is metastasis? 15. How many people in NA are living with cancer? 16. What factors in mice studies have to be controlled for? 17. What does a cup of coffee contain that's carcinogenic? Are there carcinogens in pesticide residues on food? 18. What are the 6 main causes of cancer? 19. What did a New England Journal of Medicine study find? Is there a relationship between genetics and cancer? How much for stomach cancer and cervical cancer? What % is unmistakable hereditary and what % is a major component hereditary? 20. What % of cancers are environmentally caused? What type of environmental factors? 21. How can chemicals cause cancer? What are some examples? Who did the first study? 22. What is present in BBQs? Where did the term BBQ come from? 23. What is PhIP and where is it found? What is intercalation and how does it occur? 24. What types of food have the most heterocyclic amines in them? 25. What is cytochrome P450 and what does it do? 26. What foods are most carcinogenic? What do they contain and why? 27. What molecules make acrylamide? What is the limit for acylamide in drinking water? What's the dif between boiled and fried potatoes? 28. What's the dif between fries cooked at 175 degrees C and fries cooked at 180 degrees C? 29. Is there an association between exposure to acrylamide and cancer? What study found this? 30. What is para-dioxin? 31. What is the risk of dying in lifetime smokers? 32. How can industry cause cancer? What's an example? 33. What's the risk of contracting cancer in a lifetime? 34. What is the free radical theory of cancer and aging? Who came up with the theory? 35. What is a proxy radical? What is an organic peroxide? 36. What suppresses free radicals and how? 37. How can free radical damage affect DNA and subsequent protein formation? 38. What does the monarch caterpillar eat and why? 39. How can environment cause cancer? Where is skin cancer prevalence highest? 40. What cancer is high in Japan? What's high in NA? 41. What is colon cancer death rate in the US vs Japan? Where is it non-existent? Why? What do betal nuts contain? Do bile acids contribute to cancer? 42. How is a colon examination done? 43. What medication was shown to inhibit cancer growth? 44. What are the relative mortality rates of ppl who smoke, drink, eat meat and vegetables, and those that don't? 45. What foods contain natural carcinogens? What do they contain? 46. What vitamins/substances are found to balance free radicals? 47. What is quercetin and where is it found? What is it similar to? 48. What antioxidant is in wine? How much is in grape skin and wine? What does it do? 49. What are saponins and bioflavanoids and where are they found? 50. What was curcumin found to do? What type of cancer might it help explain? 51. What is found in pepper? What does this molecule do? 52. What is the general trend of cancer in India vs US? 53. What is superoxide dismutase? Is it effective? 54. What did an Ohio State University study find? 55.
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