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Question Sets - Midterm 1.rtf

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McGill University
CHEM 181
David Harpp

1and2-Food 1. What is Plumpynut? 2. What is rBGH? 3. What is wrong with coconut oil? 4. What is Olestra? 5. What did Mayor Bloomberg do? 6. What are functional foods? What's added to milk? 7. What is freeganism, rawsome foods, and entomophagy? 8. What is the percentage of food expenditure in US/Canada? What is it in Brazil, India, Kenya, and Pakistan? 9. What did Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier do? 10. Who painted "The Potato Eaters"? 11. What is Plaster of Paris? 12. What did Upton Sinclair's book "The Jungle" describe? 13. Which act ended practitioners' illegal activities? 14. What is the problem with food abundance? What causes destruction of food? 15. Compare and contrast the diet in India and NA. How many times more protein/fat is consumed? 16. What food has the highest percentage of water? What % is watermelon? 17. What plays a role in the flavour of apples? How many cubes of sugar? What % of water? 18. What should be the caloric breakdown of nutrients for an average person? How many g/day? 19. How many calories per gram do proteins, carbohydrates, and fats have? 20. What gave humans an evolutionary advantage? 21. What did people eat in 1200 AD? What techniques were used to find out? What term refers to dried faces? 22. What is orthorexia nervosa? Name the macronutrients and micronutrients. 23. Describe the general change in diet from 1970 to 2006 in the US. 24. How do you convert from grams of fat/carbs/proteins to %weight and %cal? 25. What is sucrose made of? When and where was it discovered? 26. Who was a cousin of Degas, and what did he discover? 27. What temp does sugar need to grow? How many lbs of sugar are there in the world for each person? *28. Which countries produce the most sugar? 29. When was sucrose consumption highest? What's the general trend? 30. Which country consumes the most sugar? Lowest? 31. What is the formula for carbohydrates? *32. What's the structure of cellulose compared to starch? *33. What's another name for glucose? What is invertase? *34. What is high fructose corn syrup? What 3 enzymes converts glucose to fructose? 35. What is the relative sweetness of sucrose, glucose, fructose, corn syrup, HFCS (55%) and HFCS (90%)? 36. Are obesity and HFCS related? What is honey made of? What about brown sugar? 37. What is maltose made of? Lactose? *38. What % of the world has lactase deficiency? Blacks vs whites? How do you test if you're lactase deficient? 39. What is starch made of? What is amylopectin? What is amylase and where is it found? 40. What is fibre made of? What do fibre deficient people take? 41. Which cereals are best overall? 42. How many cubes of sugar is in a coca cola? Orange and apple juice? 43. What happens to sugar in the mouth? Why is this bad? *44. Why is fructose good? Why is it bad? 45. What is gout? What is it linked with? What causes it? What did the study show? 46. What is the fructose uric cycle? 47. What is glycation? How does toasted bread get its colour? 48. What are Advanced Glycation End Products and what do they do? What is its role in cataracts? 49. What do AGES have a role in? 50. What are fats? What is the chemical structure? What is tristearin? 51. Are saturated fats solids or liquids? What are unsaturated fats? 52. What does butter consist of? 53. Describe the amount of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat in dif types of oils. Which one's bad/good generally? 54. What is margarine made of? What is Nuvel? 55. How is margarine made? 56. Why are trans double bonds not as good? Are they naturally found? 57. What is Becel? Why can't you freeze margarine? 58. What is the % fat in steak? What does too much saturated fat do? 59. What is the relationship between saturated fat and life expectancy? 60. What is the trend in meat, fish, and poultry consumption in the past few years? 61. What is used as a feed supplement for poultry raising? Why is it bad? What is it made from? How is methionine synthesized? 62. What is omega 5? Why is it good? 63. What is the most sold fish? Why are fish fats good? 64. Name some fat substitutes - carbohydrate-based, protein-based, fat-based, and synthetic. What is a protein-based fat substitute? 65. What is Olestra? What are the pros/cons? 66. What is Kwashiorkor? 67. What is protein used for? What is the composition of water, fat, and protein in egg yolk vs white? What temp must they be cooked at? 68. What does tryptophan do and why was its sale banned? 69. How does the body digest proteins? How do proteins form? 70. What are the essential amino acids? 71. What are the complete and incomplete proteins? 72. What are corn, wheat, and rice deficient in? 73. Why are rice and bean eaten together? 74. What is soya? Is it a complete protein? What is it mostly used for? 75. What is the efficiency of production of beef, pork, chicken, milk, and eggs? 76. What's the ratio of energy cost of meat production? Carbon footprint ratio? 77. What is interesterification? What is BEANO? 3-Vitamins 1. What are the fat soluble vitamins? Water soluble? 2. What is vitamin C? How was it discovered? What is characteristic of scurvy, and why does it happen? 3. Who connected citrus juice to prevention of scurvy? Who made the connection to vitamin C? 4. What is Beri-Beri? Who discovered its cause? What was the cause? 5. What is Rickets and when did it become prominent? What cured it? What was the substance missing and why? 6. What is Pellagra and what are its symptoms? Who realized it was due to a vitamin deficiency and how? What was the vitamin missing? 7. Where did the term vitamin come from? 8. What vitamins are found in stress formulas? 9. What lowers vitamin B? What lowers vitamins A and D? 10. How many mg of niacin is necessary for prevention of Pellagra? To lower cholesterol? 11. How many g of folic acid is needed to prevent anemia? Prevent neural tube defect? 12. What may prevent Alzheimers? 13. What is vitamin B present in? Does it prevent heart disease? 14. What is homocysteine? What converts it to glutathionine? 15. Who invented the bikini? What was it named after? 16. What does vitamin D do? How many IU of vitamin D is needed in people <50, 50-60, and >70? 17. Is vitamin D related to reduced chance of cancer? 18. What is meta analysis? What is an observational study? What is a cohort/case control study? What are interventional controlled study? What's a double blind randomized placebo-controlled study? What is the problem with this kind of study? 19. Is vitamin D related to mortality? 20. What is the reduction in cancer with calcium supplements? Calcium and vitamin D? How much vitamin D should be taken in the winter months? 21. What is the #1 vitamin supplement? Is there evidence it prevents multiple sclerosis? 22. Which vitamins are common antioxidants? 23. What are free radicals? What do antioxidants do to them? 24. What is orthomolecular medicine? How much vitamin C do these people need? Who was the first proponent of vitamin C as orthomolecular medicine? 25. Does vitamin C help in common cold? Is there a causative relationship between cold weather and colds? 26. Can we make our own vitamin C? What other animals can't make their own vitamin C? 27. What is cholesterol and what is it a risk factor in?
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