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World of Chem- Food- Final Study Guide.docx

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CHEM 181
David Harpp

WORLD OF CHEMISTRY FOOD FINAL STUDY GUIDE DIET AND CANCER Cancer Deaths Fact Sheet 2006Cancer Milestone o Cancer deaths in the USA fall of the first time in over 70 years only 1 to 3 not that fast of a decline556902 died from cancer in 2003 down 369 from 2002Death rate has been falling but population keeps risingThe explanation o Smoking on decline cancer spotted earlier and treated betterMost common cancers 2003 o Lung men 89964 women 68122 o Colon rectum men 28007 women 27961 o Breast men 380 women 41620 o Prostate men 29554Significance o Halfmillion still die every year but drop encouraging o Total deaths may rise again because of ageing population Cancer treatmentsSurgery chemo and radiation slash poison and burn o Radiation is often the last resort5 year survival rates have risen from 50 to 66Several vaccine strategies are now being researched o Peptide based o Cell based o Example the FDA has approved a vaccine called PROVENGE for prostate cancer and it has lengthened life by several months It stimulates the immune system Comparison of Cancer IncidenceCancer very much depends on the diet For example when comparing USA vs India vs Japan in terms of prostate cancer in the US there are 1043 cases while elsewhere the incidence is dramatically smallerAround 1950 in the US most cancers were level But as a whole all cancers increased slightly This was because of the dramatic increase in lung cancer especially in women Now the cancers other than lung are dropping while lung cancer is still rising o This creates the overall effect of cancer rates dropping but not by very much o Women began to smoke a lot between 19601965 As these women aged lung cancer increased In terms of men around 1985 enough men stopped smoking that lung cancer rates began to drop Men started smoking a lot during the 1940s In the US it was determined that there is a 12 per year reduction on colorectal cancer o Divide 70 by thechange to get an idea of the halving or doubling of the process70 years to drop the rate by Cancer rates under 65 o Lung cancer for females is going up 70 and all cancers overall going down by about 10 This is true even up until today Skin cancers melanoma are increasing in Australia because of the sunIn moles what you want to look out for are things that are not uniform in brown colour and not round and spherical Cancer rates over age 65 o Lung cancer is up for women a lot Each cancer has its own rate and all cancer has increased by about 16 to 17 In the US 500000 persons will die of cancer this year about 1500 per day 1 per minute In Canada it is 110 one every 10 minutes In North America the most prominent cancer deaths are LUNG BREAST PROSTATE and COLONOut of the 330 million people in North America approximately 10 million are living with cancer Expectance of premature cancerUnbalanced diet top35 Tobacco30 Infections10 Sexual Behaviour7 Occupational5 Alcohol3 etc o Both unbalanced diet and tobacco are the top two contributing factoring making up 23 of the risk o While high cholesterol and hypertension are going down obesity is rising This is giving a sense of where the problems are Smoking is becoming less and less of a problem by comparisonWomens Health Initiative o Reducing fat intake may have a small effect on risk of breast cancer no effect on risk of colorectal cancer heart disease or stroke o The results from the largest ever clinical trial of lowfat diet are reported in three papers in the thFebruary 8 2006 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Associationo Involved 50000 women between the ages of 5069 costing about 05 billion dollars and not much was found other than the fact that it did not seem to matter o The study went on for 8 years and involved a lot of information o Final conclusion among postmenopausal women a reduction in fat intake did not lead to a significant reduction in breast cancer over an eightyear periodCancer terms NEED TO KNOWMutagenic an agent or substance including a virus or ionizing radiation that can bring about a permanent alteration to the DNA of a gene does not necessarily cause cancerTeratogenic an agent or substance including a virus or ionizing radiation that can cause malformation of an embryo or fetus o Numerous in the plant world one that is famous is thalidomide unfortunately it is actually good for leprosyCarcinogenic an agent or substance including a virus or ionizing radiation that can cause cancero They do not technically always cause cancer this classification is due to animal studiesThe process of angiogenesis malignant cells secrete chemicals promoting new blood vessels and the tumor growsMetastasis is when pieces of a tumor break off and the tumor spreads o Tumor fighting can take place at many places to inhibit some of these steps What about the press and the food connectionPeople go back and forth on food one classic example is coffee and cancer o A cup of coffee contains about 10 MG of known carcinogensAcrylamideCaffeic acidBenzeneStyreneFormaldehydeFurfuralSome of these contribute to flavour and some do not Keep in mind that these are carcinogens in animal studiesThere are more natural rodent carcinogens by weight in an average cup of coffee than there are potentially carcinogenic synthetic pesticide residues in the average North American diet for a yearHuman Equivalent Rat Potency HERP o This is an effort to show that if it can kill a rat at that concentration what can it do to a humano It is an index that tells you the impact of food eg high indexhigh impactEgs PCBs 00002 tap water 0001 beer 28 wine 47 phenobarbital 16 clofibrate 17 Variations in studies o All of these must be kept constantNature of carcinogenFibre differencesRat strainFood intakeDiet compositionExperimental designAnd even the wood chips in the cage same type amount etcThere are organic chemicals given off from wood and they need to be constantCauses of Cancer o GeneticimportantNEJM study of environmental inheritable factors in the causation of cancer They used 45000 pairs of twins and tried to work out the various factors10000 cancers occurred and some showed heritable factors o Stomach CancerBottom line conclusion from the paperHeritable28Shared environmental10Nonshared environmental62The conclusion is that environment 73 over genetics o Cervical CancerHeritablelowShared environmentallowNonshared environmentalhighAbsolute risks o Monozygotic twins identical 15 o Dizygotic twins fraternal 6Conclusion taken togetherUnmistakable heredity 1Major component heredity 15 o Some of the cancers were lower and some higher contributing to the total 73 or 82 with the environment playing more of a roleUp to 90 7090 of cancers are environmentally caused
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