Study Guides (238,413)
Canada (115,125)
Chemistry (192)
CHEM 182 (2)

Review Midterm 1

8 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
CHEM 182
Joe Schwarcz

Lecture 7: Headaches At 1 point or other 10% of population suffers from headaches 90% population is sensitive to headache (10% pop never gets headache. We don’t know why.) 3 million Canadians Old treatment: contraption in ear to draw out pain from headache and trepanation ie hole in scalp (more painful than headache) Genetic factor= more prone to headaches When you have a headache, feel pain OUTSIDE scalp (no pain receptors in scalp/brain). Mechanism: 12 main types; 60 subtypes 2 major types A. Muscular type (80% population; most common); mostly younger people in urban area; women outnumber men as sufferers (more women in clinics than men since women more willing to seek help when in pain); Associated with stress; caused by tightening of muscles around forehead and the neck; TMJ (Temperal Mandicular Joint syndrome)- dentists say caused by misalignment of jaw and charge 10k to realign B. Vascular type caused by dilation of blood vessel around skull; I. Toxic: Dilation caused by external factor ex. i. Alcohol (vasodilator- face flushed). Certain types are worse. The concentration of congeners related to hangover of alcohol (chemicals generated at same time as alcohol during aging process therefore more aged and darker color=higher congener content). Vodka and gin least problematic (clear and not aged); red wine worse than white wine (women more prone to red wine headache); Whiskey (American and Irish) not as bad as Whisky (from Scotland, Canada= more aged) and Cognac (from Cognac, north of Bordeau. English= Brandy (Dutch name; distilled wine) aged too). ii. Foods; cheese and burgundy wines (Pinot noir in Oregon- grape used to make champaigne (most made from red grape; rose is red grapes pressed gently and in contact with skin with varying amounts of time); Histamine that works on different receptors than allergy; iii. Nitrites (in hot dogs); some people more sensitive; nitroglycerin (vasodilator: ppl that have chest pain to dilate blood vessels and in dynamite when absorbed in some other material such as saw dust- story man wearing nitroglycerin patch got electric shock to revive him and it caused explosion) is one of few molecules that goes through skin iv. MSG v. Caffeine (vasoconstrictor); those who are addicted to caffeine don’t have caffeine in morning vessel dilate more than normal vi. Ice cream; just cold vii. Pop: mostly men (Post orgasmic pain) where blood dilates after orgasm II. Migraine: Classic migraine (1/10 migraine sufferers) 2 steps 1. Vasocontriction(=queeziness, nausea, dizzy, visual disturbances) and 2. Vasodilation ; migraine term is French and comes from greek (hemigrania- pain on half the head); factors/triggers include tension, relaxation, lack or excess sleep, pregnancy and menstruation, certain foods/drugs, strong odors=> genetic factor (Nature June 2011 found gene) III. Cluster Headaches: affect mostly older men; ok for few months then have headaches for few days straight; “like pulling head out of body” Treatment: Muscular headache: staying cool. Vascular toxic: ibuprofen or acetaminophen Migraine: 1. Triggers,2. hypothalamus, 3.trigeminal nerves, 4.pain Acetylcholine and serotonin associated with headache; there is a gap (synapse) between each neuron (they don’t touch). Serotonin (vasoconstrictor) is a neurotransmitter that transfers chemical impulse from one nerve cell to another. The electrical impulse releases serotonin, exits and fits into receptor types, electrical impulse formed, etc. After serotonin is used, it is taken up again (reuptake). Can either increase nerve signal by increasing level of serotonin (agonist- one way is by acting as reuptake inhibitor) or lower effect of nerve signal (antagonist) by either blocking receptor or use a substance that picks up serotonin. Want to increase serotonin to relieve headaches therefore use serotonin agonists ex. Cafergot (caffeine- vasoconstrictor- Ergot is a fungus that naturally grows on rye and causes symptoms associated with vasoconstriction of blood vessel. Pont St-Esprit France 1952; 200 cases, 7 deaths of ergot poisoning; LSD in same family as ergot, get visual disturbances; Witches of Salem in Massachusetts, have visions and the like, 19 women hanged, explanation given today is that that summer it had been very wet, and poisoned with ergot; play “the crucible” by Arthur Miller(married to Marilyn Monroe (during the McCarty Era in 1950s- everyone accused of being associated with communism). Triptans act on serotonin as agonist (sumatriptan succinate tablets- receptor agonist- regulate levels of serotonin. This type of compound constricts blood vessel therefore careful for heart disease. Other treatments for migraines include Botox, electric shock (electrical eels, TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), ONS (occipital nerve stimulation)). Some people have migraines so often that can’t always take drugs due to overly high levels of serotonin. They therefore need to be prevented. Constriction of blood vessels causes migraines therefore this is targeted. Methysergide maleate is a serotonin Antagonist. Propanolol (beta-blocker) dilates blood vessels and used to prevent migraines for frequent sufferers. Topiramate (Topamax) is a treatment for epilepsy, offlabel use is treatment of migraines for some. Cluster Headaches: Breathing in pure oxygen (crying eyes) to get some relief from headache. Nifedipine (calcium-channel blocker) is a heart medicine used. Biofeedback (control with electrical signal. Questionable but provides relief for some.) and acupuncture. Next topic: Colds Women are more prone to colds than men. 1 billion colds/year in NA Most expensive cold in history= Apollo 9 Mission delayed one week due to one suffering a cold (1969) Folk remedies: Apalation mountain found tobacco good for colds. Take patches over nostril.; drink in bed until drunk; ale ginger and honey (16 century) and horse manure (active ingredient) Cold is a contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract. The overuse of some cold remedies can lead to hallucinations. Antibiotics do not treat this. It is a virus (200 different viruses classified in families. The most common is rhinoviruses (nose) and most problematic one is adenoviruses (very rare)). World record is 4 meters and 160 km/hr of sneeze. Used to believe that soal leaves brain when sneeze (expression God Bless You!). Benjamin Franklin first to id cause of cold. Sneeze has few live viruses. Worse thing you can do is shake hands with someone with cold. Kissing was studied at University of Wisconsin. 16 couples, one with cold, kissed for 2 minutes at a time, in all 16 cases, no cold transmitted. Transmission by holding hands. Incidence of colds over years in terms of age: females more prone to cold than men except first year of life. Less prone with age (at daycare, around other people more than when older). When older, more exposed to more viruses therefore developed immunity or that when older less social. Spike parents get from kids. Only 50% of people exposed to cold will actually develop the symptoms of the cold. Common Cold Research Centre in Salisbury (England). People offered one week vacation in country- side on condition that they be exposed to virus. Most data from this centre. There is NO causative relationship between cold weather and colds. We get more colds during the winter months since we are more inside (crowdedness). Occurance of colds in an island in Scotland- boat leaves in november, arrives in may (in between very low amount of colds) and MUCH higher during summer. In Trinidad, greater in summer months (rain=inside) and in Sheffield higher in winter months. We spend 4 billion dollars per year to treat colds. Note that treatments only provide relief to symptoms. (last same amount of time, about one week, with or without treatment). Pain reliever (acetaminophen and asa), decongestant(phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-not used anymore due to side effects, pseudoephedrine(mainly) and phenylephrine (all 3 are tablets), and xylometazoline as drops) , and antihistamine (drying effect-chlorpheniramine(most used) and doxylamine) are used. Dristan Advertising: The exclusive Dristan formula cannot be duplicated. Decongestant most prescribed by doctors. (phenylpropanolamine-not used anymore due to side effects) Exclusive anti-allergant. (chlorpheniramine-explosive) Pain-relieving medication most recommended by doctors. (Acetylsalicylic acid). Also contained caffeine to increase rate of absorption of medication. NOW- is it for sinus colds (acetaminophen, phehylephrine, Chlorpheniramine ie pain, congestion and antihistamine). Oral cold remedies with decongestant is blood constricto
More Less

Related notes for CHEM 182

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.