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CHEM 203 (7)
Final

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 203
Professor
William C.Galley
Semester
Fall

Description
CHEM203NOTESFORFINALEXAMTableofContentsLIGANDMACROMOLECULEINTERACTIONS2THELANGMUIRISOTHERM2HALFSATURATIONPOINT2TDEPENDENCE3THEDOUBLERECIPROCALEQUATIONPLOT3SCATCHARDEQUATIONPLOT4THERMODYNAMICSOFELECTROCHEMICALCELLS6METALMETALIONELECTRODES7AMALGAMELECTRODES7METALINSOLUBLESALTELECTRODES7CALOMELELECTRODE7THENERNSTEQUATION8RATEOFREACTIONS8FIRSTORDERREACTIONS9PSEUDOFIRSTORDERREACTIONS11SECONDORDERREACTIONS12REACTIONRATEOFPARALLELREACTIONS12REVERSEREACTIONSANDEQUILIBRIUM14CONSECUTIVEREACTIONS15REACTIONSINVOLVINGAREACTIVEINTERMEDIATE16KINETICMECHANISMS17FIRSTORDERREACTION17SECONDORDERBIMOLECULARREACTION18THELINDEMANNHINSHELWOODTHEORYOFUNIMOLECULARGASPHASEREACTIONS19CTANALYSIS210MIDPOINTOFTHECURVEORCT27012PROKARYOTICDNA27EUKARYOTICDNA27REPETITIONFREQUENCY30ENZYMECATALYZEDREACTIONS30CONDITIONSWHERESK320MCONDITIONSWHERESK320M2LigandMacromoleculeInteractionsTheLangmuirIsothermAnassumptionhasbeenmadethatbindingtothenbindingsitesoccurswiththesameKandthatthebindingisindependentienointeractionbetweenbindingsitesrnKLrKLTherparameterisavariableItstartsatzerointheabsenceofligandandsaturatesatnwhenallthesitesareoccupiedTheLangmuirIsothermisusedinevaluatingthebindingofsmallmoleculestosurfacesaswellasbindingtomacromoleculesIfL0thenthenumerator0andr0IfLisverylargeie1KthenKL1ThedenominatoressentiallybecomesKLsothatKLcancelsinthenumeratoranddenominatorandrnNowrgoesfrom0nasLgoesfrom0KL10HalfsaturationpointAtaparticularvalueofLKL10andrn2orthebindingishalfsaturatedNotethatatthishalfsaturationpointL1KorK1L3TheligandconcentrationathalfsaturationcanbeusedtoevaluateKthebindingconstantTdependenceIfthetemperatureisincreasedanditisfoundthatwhilethenumberofbindingsitesdoesntchangetheLrequiredtoproducehalfsaturationn2hasincreasedorthebindinghasweakenedThevaluesofKatthehighertemperaturecanbeevaluatedbutevenbeforethedataisquantitativelycomparedwiththatobtainedatthelowerotemperatureweknowthebindingisexothermicortheHThedoublereciprocalequationplotFromthepointofviewofvisualanalysisaswellasstatisticalanalysisitisalwayseasiertodealwithlinearplotsandequationsratherthannonlinearonessuchastheLangmuirIsothermTheLangmuirIsothermcanberearrangedinto2differentlinearformsthatservethispurposeWith2termsinthedenominatorand1terminthenumeratortakingtheinverseofbothsidesorcrossmultiplyingproduces11KLrnKL1111rnKLnymxbAplotof1rversus1Lislinear
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