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CIVE 446 Final 2013 Notes.pdf

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Civil Engineering
CIVE 446
William Taylor

1. Assess the Boston Big Dig Project TEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION WORKS:  The soil, for the sections which cut across the Harbor Channels, was too weak and had to be reclaimed and mixed with cement to strengthen (took 3 years with giant blades) o Built tunnel sections in a basin, attached to the channel’s side, which was flooded if they had to move the sections into 4-Points Channel o Risk Management: Redline also crossed the channel, so tubes were built to act as a gate in case construction failed and caused damage to the line  For the landside portion, soil was too weak so they stiffened the ground by freezing it o In order to not disturb the trains on the Redline, they pulled steel cables the other way of the tunnel sections as they were jacked into the ground underneath  Eliminated any undesired movement in the soils above  Two access tunnels were built on either side of the Redline, and were bridged in order to build the highway sections underneath  Injected cement grout into bedrock to strengthen the ground, ten concrete side supports and then roof carved to support the station EXECUTION:  I-90 Tunnel: Portion of the tunnel Ted Williams Tunnel which was built under Boston Harbor saw 900 000 yd of earth moved in order to install prefabricated tunnels o Tunnels were constructed and floated 400 miles to the Harbor where they were covered in concrete and sunk to the ocean floor (tunnel sections fabricated in Maryland) o Tunnel was built on time and on schedule  Dug land based tunnels as close to the water’s edge as possibl16( / ”), if tunnels were off they wouldn’t be able to connect tunnel sections o Shot a laser from one end of the Harbor to the other in order to align the tunnels since they could not see below water  There was failure in a seal between the construction site and channel, 70 000 gallons flowed into the site and overwhelmed pumps (flooded)  Channel section of the I-90 Highway was the most expensive highway per mile  I-93 Tunnel: As the roads shifted, the main highway arteries remained open as the 8-10 lane highway was built underneath  Highway had to go below: 1) Passenger Terminal, 2) Bus Expressway and 3) Redline Subway  Spectacle Island: Dumped 4 000 000 yd of reclaimed land to clean up an old factory which was heavily contaminated and polluted  Cable Stayed Bridge: Had to replace existing double-decker bridge, as the highway exited the I- 93 Tunnel, with single stayed cable bridge (widest ever) CHALLENGES:  How will car drivers adjust to new highway systems or lanes, there is a radical shift in urban traffic?  How will they manage traffic during construction? In order to maintain their daily activity, the highway was kept open as the building of the new highway system was built belowground  How to convince stakeholders that this project was worth their support? Convinced stakeholders by contrasting this project against the Massachusetts Turnpike, which destroyed a number of homes and forced residents from their homes.  In the grounds below the City of Boston, was filled with pipes, wires and sewer systems (very difficult to navigate since locations of some pipes were unknown) o Complexity of the work was never properly assessed  What if there was a fire in the tunnel? 7 Ventilation Buildings were built to blow fresh air into tunnels to control the flames, 90 Test Fires, and built an Intelligent Highway Response System AREAS OF FOUCS:  I-90 Tunnel (Underneath Boston Harbour, 4-Points Channel)  I-93 Tunnel (Tunnel through Downtown Boston)  Spectacle Island/ Cable Stayed Bridge ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT:  Lack of a properly executed geotechnical survey to examine the soil conditions of the build site (found out AFTER the budget and the project had been proposed and accepted)  Lack of a discussion surrounding the effects of reclaiming soil from the sea bed and replacing it with concrete tunnels, effects on aquatic life? 2. What did you learn from all 5 Guest Speakers? What Issues are Significant? ALI ASHRAF:  1) Scope, 2) WBS, 3) Deliverables  Define the problem, specify the requirements, explore alternate solutions, build prototype or model, test the model and refine, communicate results o Good for solving problems but does not let you build anything  1) Opportunity Study, 2) Concept/Pre-Feasibility Study, 3) Feasibility Study, 4) Preliminary Engineering, 5) Detailed Engineering, Procurement, Construction  Engineering Stage-Gate Process (Phase Gate): is a progressive solution since it turns ideas into workable solutions by ensuring that all the requirements are met o It allows for ‘go-no go’ decisions to be made at select intervals in the project life cycle  Vitruvius 10 Books of Architecture: Firm, Useful and Appeal (Duty to Love) -> Firmitas, Utilitas and Venustas (today, we still face many of the same issues in engineering as we did in the past)  Engineering Design (WBS): is about finding the right problem to solve, functional analysis, and must respond to a specific need (purpose), proportion, places and people o Purpose: present solutions rather than problems o Places: Building something lasting for the world o People: Taking responsibility for greater public o Proportion: Size  Contingency is the amount for ignorance, to account for the costs of logistics (cushion for expected costs through to estimate) o Depletes with time, whereas risk costs will hopefully not be used (if there is good risk management) o Contingency estimates decrease as the design becomes more and more defined and approaches tender (all costs can be better predicted) 1 o Contingency ∝ Design Certainty  Most construction problems that go wrong are result from poor or a poorly defined scope  Political landscape is a major risk to large projects particularly when it involves large revenues  In a project it should be defined what you do, deliverables  Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (PIDs) are the most important deliverable since it shows where all instrumentation, mechanical and electrical o Since there are many interactions between trades, communication is essential (must all feed into simulations, 2D Models, 3D Models)  Health and Safety is involved in all components and is seen as a must work with public safety in mind (management must be involved in all components overlooking the process)  Using a simple model we can look at how work activities are completed and if things stick out or clash (Is everything aligned?) CARLO CIMO (McGill PM-WFP):  Goals of McGill’s PM-WFP: 1) Clarify Roles and Organization, 2) Instill Accountability, 3) Promote Consistency, 4) Create Transparency and 5) Mitigates Risk o PM-WFP: Project Management-Work Flow Process  Project: temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product (terminated when objectives are achieved)  Project Management: application of skills related to managing a project  PM-WFP is unique to McGill and identifies the stakeholders and culture, functions at each stage, inputs to functions, deliverables of each project, and the documentation storage or information  Three main stakeholders at McGill: 1) Customer, 2) Project Manager and 3) Design Professionals  Project Manager is responsible and accountable for all phases of the project life (responsible for identifying scope of the project)  Design Professionals are responsible for identifying the scope of the work and transfer that information to a clear set of plans and specifications  Builder is responsible for building as per the DPs plans and specifications  PM-WFP at McGill consists of: 6 phases (validation, scope, design, tender, construction, delivery-close out), 112 functions, 31 decision points, 108 deliverables and 66 notes  Benefits of PM-WFP: 1) Ensures Consistency, 2) “Forces” Best Practices, 3) Transparency, 4) Manages Shareholder Expectations, and 5) Mitigates Risk MONYA PELCHAT (ISO 14 0001):  ISO 14 001 is an internationally recognized Environmental Management System (EMS) standard, it is a framework and not a how-to guide  ISO 14 001 applies to all sizes and types of businesses though its acceptance is voluntary, it encourages responsibility through ‘motivation factors’ o Satisfies client requirements and allows a business to remain competitive o Enhances corporate image and rewards for environmental stewardship o Fulfills due diligence and legal requirements o Lower internal cost and present or future environmental risks  EMS should be implemented at the beginning (pre-construction) since it eliminates or minimizes environmental impacts/is more effective the earlier it is implemented Act → Plan  Follows the Deming Wheel Approach: ↑ Check ← Do↓ (NOTE: Circular) o Planning: ISO 14 0001 must be signed by top management and commit to continual improvement  Environmental Aspects: establish, maintain, implement procedure to identify environmental aspects  Aspects – Causes; Impacts – Effects (SEA: Significant Environmental Aspects)  Construction Activities -> Aspects -> Impacts -> Evaluation Criteria -> Significant Impacts o Do: Competence, Training and Awareness; Communication (Internal or External); Operational Control (Plan, Implement, Update Documented Procedures) o Check: Monitoring, Measuring, Compliance and Resolving  Record: document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed, cannot be changed (a document can be anything which is NOT filled out, can be changed) o Act: Management Review (What Improvements can be made in the Future?)  Challenges: EMS must allow modifications of control measures and realistic environmental objectives (heavy structure, top management support which have
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