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Lecture Notes - Cumulative MT#2.docx

Course Code
CLAS 203
Margaret Palczynski

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CLAS203 Lecture Notes
CLAS203 Lecture 10 Notes
Zeus’ other names include: Juppiter, Jupiter, Jove
Upholder of the universe
*di-: ‘sky/shine’
Germanic: Tiu (Tuesday)
Indic: Dyaus Pitar Father Sky
‘Cloud gatherer’, ‘aegis-bearing’ (goat skin shield, used by Athena as breastplate)
Resides on Mt. Olympus, born in Mt. Dicte, born in other genealogies in Mt. Ida
Symbols: Thunderbolt, eagle, sceptre (staff, rod)
Sacred animal: bull
Ruler: wisdom, strength, justice (dike)
Zeus: (xenia): guest-host relationship
Shrines: Dodona, Olympia
Zeus’ immortal consorts:
Zeus + Hera (Olympian) Ares, Hephaestus, Eliethyia (asexual)
Zeus + Demeter (Olympian) Persephone
Zeus + Leto (Titan) Apollo, Artemis
Zeus + Themis (Titan) Moirae (3), Horae (3) (imposes order on universe)
Zeus + Dione (early hieros gamos?) Aphrodite
Zeus + Metis (Personification) Athena
Zeus + Mnemosyne (Personification) Muses (9)
Zeus + Eurynome (Oceanid) Graces (3)
Zeus + Maia (Nymph) Hermes
Zeus’ mortal consorts:
Zeus + Semele Dionysus (immortal)
Zeus + Io Epaphus
Zeus + Europa Minos, (Rhadamanthys, Sarpedon)
Zeus + Danae Perseus
Zeus + Leda Dioscuri (Castor, Polydeuces)
Zeus + Alcmena Heracles
Hera’s other names: Juno
Name preHellenic
Retains power of parthenogenesis

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Early deity: Argos, Samos, Olympia
Argives (Greeks)
Marriage, family: hates adultery
Daughter Eileithyia: goddess of childbirth
Persecutes Zeus’ mistresses and their children
Loyal to Zeus (no affairs)
Never addressed as ‘mother’, or shown with children
Poseidon and Triton:
Poseidon’s other name: Neptune
God of the sea, earthquakes, horses
‘Posis’ ‘Lord’ + ‘de-‘? (‘wheat’?)
Had a trident
Amphitrite, Triton (conch)
o Shapechanger (Nereus, Proteus)
Sacred animal: horse, bull
Two navigational hazards Scylla (mistress of Poseidon, Amphitrite poisons her bathing
area, changes her into a monster) and Charybdis (known for her terrible appetite; Zeus
changes her into a whirlpool) (straits of Messina between Italy and Sicily)
Demeter: Arion (the talking-horse)
Contests: Argos (Hera); Athens (Athene)
Polyphemus (Cyclopes) and Galatea
CLAS203 Lecture 11 Notes
The Forge of Hephaestus:
Always seen depicted in art with tools, which demonstrates his trade
In many stories, Hephaestus made many magical/remarkable items such as the thread
to get out of a labyrinth
Other names include Volcanus, Vulcan
Non-Greek origin
Island of Lemnos
Two variants: son of Zeus and Hera/son of Hera
Serious: art, love
God of fire and forge (useful fire)

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Patron of metalworkers, smiths
Promoter of civilization and city life
Physical deformity, lack of beauty
Wife: Aphrodite (contrast)
Lusted after Athene (birth of Erichthonius)
Objects made by Hephaestus
o Pandora (clay)
o Manacles binding Prometheus
o Ball of unbreakable thread (Ariadne)
Thrown down from Olympus
Rescued by Thetis and the Nereids
Return to Olympus
Volcanus: destructive fire
Can be identified by always wearing armour
Also known as Mars
Incarnation of blood lust: merciless, fearless
“The most hated of all gods”
Originates in Thrace
Few myths, worshipped little
No wife
Children by Aphrodite: Eros, Harmonia
Homer, Odyssey, bk. 8: Ares, Aphrodite and Hephaestus
Mars: Very important god to the Romans
CLAS203 Lecture 12 Notes
Other name is Mercury (to the Romans)
Often depicted in art by his pointed traveller hat, herald staff with intertwining snakes
and his winged boots
Herma: stone heap marker
Herald and messenger of the gods
Is constantly moving; in constant motion
Protector of:
o Travellers
o Those living in the wilderness (Arcadia)
o Shepherds and flocks
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