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CLAS 206 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Outis, Hamartia, Dramatic Theory


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLAS 206
Professor
Martin Sirois
Study Guide
Quiz

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CLAS 206 QUIZ 1 STUDY GUIDE
30 MINS
MULTIPLE CHOICE AND SHORT ANSWER (MAX 2 SENTENCES)
Rome (closer to American Views)
Political and military ideology
Corruption and moral decline
Spectatorship and games at amphitheaters
Imperialism (political or cultural)
Greece
Super-heroism
Female tragedies
Difficult subjects (philosophy) or cultural taboos (homosexuality)
Aristotle
Credited with writing the first text on dramatic theory- how to make tragic
drama [Poetics]
Believed to have written a text on comedy too [Poetics, vol. 2], but it is
lost
Aristotle returns to Athens and founds his own school, Lyceum
2 types of lectures:
advanced students (morning)
open public lectures (evening)
Aristotle's Poetics
First systematic critical theory in the world
Categories of literature: defining genres
Influence in criticism of arts, aesthetics, literature
Formalist approach to literature
Poetry= forms of IMITATION
Three aspects in which poetic genres (oral or written) can be
distinguished from each other:
1. The medium through which they present their imitation
i.e. painters use colors and shapes
Poetry imitates by means of what? (hois)
Rhythm, Language (logos), and Harmony
i.e. Music combines rhythm and harmony; dance
uses only rhythmical movement
2. the object of imitation
Poetry imitates what? (ha)
All poetry is the representation of the actions of human
beings
Ex: Tragedy- nobler, better men (morally superior)
Ex: Comedy- lower, lesser men (morally inferior)
3. the mode or manner of the imitation
Poetry imitates how? (hôs)
Narrative (course of events as a story told by a narrator)
Drama (course of events as an action enacted by actors-
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Greek definition)
Tragedy
"Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain
magnitude, with elements that should arouse pity and fear, so as to
accomplish the catharsis (purgation) of such emotions"
Every tragedy must have six parts, which parts determine its quality-- namely,
Plot, Characters, Thought (theme), Diction (artistic use of language),
Song/Music, and Spectacle (opsis)
Plot
Most important element
"Representation of an Action" (Drama) aka something has to happen
Must have a beginning, middle, and end structure
Unity and probability
Goal of Tragedy aka Catharsis "purifying or relieving of emotions"
Catharsis accomplished through Pity and Fear
Pity: aroused by undeserved misfortune
Fear: aroused by the misfortune of a man like ourselves
Plot Elements: the plot has 3 parts
Reversal of Fortune (good to bad and vice versa)
"The change of fortune from good to bad should come
about as a result, not of vice, but some great error of
frailty in character"
Recognition
Discovery, new knowledge
Oedipus King recognized as one of the best scenes of
recognition from good to bad
Emotion
Character (personality)
Characters should also be probable or necessary
Hero
Good (through his language and actions)
Propriety (maintain social values)
True to life (conformity): relatable (we should feel empathy)
Consistency (some traits throughout)
Hamartia (tragic flaw): much debated
Hero mistakenly brings about his own downfall
Not because he is sinful or morally weak, but because he doesn't
know any better
Thought (or Theme)
Not developed by Aristotle
Probable 'theme' or ideas presented
Language (or Diction)
Language must fit the personality
Personality expressed/shown through their use of language (vocabulary,
rhetoric)
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