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CLAS 203
Margaret Palczynski

CLAS203 Lecture Notes CLAS203 Lecture 10 Notes Zeus:  Zeus’ other names include: Juppiter, Jupiter, Jove  Upholder of the universe  *di-: ‘sky/shine’  Germanic: Tiu (Tuesday)  Indic: Dyaus Pitar ‘Father Sky’  ‘Cloud gatherer’, ‘aegis-bearing’ (goat skin shield, used by Athena as breastplate)  Resides on Mt. Olympus, born in Mt. Dicte, born in other genealogies in Mt. Ida  Symbols: Thunderbolt, eagle, sceptre (staff, rod)  Sacred animal: bull  Ruler: wisdom, strength, justice (dike)  Zeus: (xenia): guest-host relationship  Shrines: Dodona, Olympia Zeus’ immortal consorts:  Zeus + Hera (Olympian)  Ares, Hephaestus, Eliethyia (asexual)  Zeus + Demeter (Olympian)  Persephone  Zeus + Leto (Titan)  Apollo, Artemis  Zeus + Themis (Titan)  Moirae (3), Horae (3) (imposes order on universe)  Zeus + Dione (early hieros gamos?)  Aphrodite  Zeus + Metis (Personification)  Athena  Zeus + Mnemosyne (Personification)  Muses (9)  Zeus + Eurynome (Oceanid)  Graces (3)  Zeus + Maia (Nymph)  Hermes Zeus’ mortal consorts:  Zeus + Semele  Dionysus (immortal)  Zeus + Io  Epaphus  Zeus + Europa  Minos, (Rhadamanthys, Sarpedon)  Zeus + Danae  Perseus  Zeus + Leda  Dioscuri (Castor, Polydeuces)  Zeus + Alcmena  Heracles Hera:  Hera’s other names: Juno  Name preHellenic  Retains power of parthenogenesis  ‘Cow-eyed’  Early deity: Argos, Samos, Olympia  Argives (Greeks)  Marriage, family: hates adultery  Daughter Eileithyia: goddess of childbirth  Persecutes Zeus’ mistresses and their children  Loyal to Zeus (no affairs)  Never addressed as ‘mother’, or shown with children Poseidon and Triton:  Poseidon’s other name: Neptune  God of the sea, earthquakes, horses  ‘Earthshaker’  ‘Posis’ ‘Lord’ + ‘de-‘? (‘wheat’?)  Had a trident  Amphitrite, Triton (conch) o Shapechanger (Nereus, Proteus)  Sacred animal: horse, bull  Two navigational hazards – Scylla (mistress of Poseidon, Amphitrite poisons her bathing area, changes her into a monster) and Charybdis (known for her terrible appetite; Zeus changes her into a whirlpool) (straits of Messina – between Italy and Sicily)  Demeter: Arion (the talking-horse)  Contests: Argos (Hera); Athens (Athene)  Polyphemus (Cyclopes) and Galatea CLAS203 Lecture 11 Notes The Forge of Hephaestus:  Always seen depicted in art with tools, which demonstrates his trade  In many stories, Hephaestus made many magical/remarkable items such as the thread to get out of a labyrinth Hephaestus:  Other names include Volcanus, Vulcan  Non-Greek origin  Island of Lemnos  Two variants: son of Zeus and Hera/son of Hera  Serious: art, love  God of fire and forge (useful fire)  Patron of metalworkers, smiths  Promoter of civilization and city life  Physical deformity, lack of beauty  Wife: Aphrodite (contrast)  Lusted after Athene (birth of Erichthonius)  Objects made by Hephaestus o Pandora (clay) o Manacles binding Prometheus o Ball of unbreakable thread (Ariadne)  Thrown down from Olympus  Rescued by Thetis and the Nereids  ‘Return to Olympus’  Volcanus: destructive fire Ares:  Can be identified by always wearing armour  Also known as Mars  Incarnation of blood lust: merciless, fearless  “The most hated of all gods”  Originates in Thrace  Few myths, worshipped little  No wife  Children by Aphrodite: Eros, Harmonia  Homer, Odyssey, bk. 8: Ares, Aphrodite and Hephaestus  Mars: Very important god to the Romans CLAS203 Lecture 12 Notes Hermes:  Other name is Mercury (to the Romans)  Often depicted in art by his pointed traveller hat, herald staff with intertwining snakes and his winged boots  Herma: stone heap marker  Herald and messenger of the gods  Is constantly moving; in constant motion  Protector of: o Travellers o Those living in the wilderness (Arcadia) o Shepherds and flocks o Merchants and thieves (Lat. Merx) o Heralds  Psychompompos: ‘soul guide’ (Hermes’ job to guide the human souls to the river that divides the upper world to lower world)  Argeiphontes: ‘slayer of Argus’  Divine trickster  Symbols: o Petasus (traveller’s hat) o Caduceus (herald’s wand) o Winged sandals  Similarity to Apollo (young, handsome, close to shepherds)  Homeric Hymn to Hermes o Son of Maia (born in cave) o Pieria, Alpheus River o Cyllenian Hermes  Offspring: Pan, Hermaphroditus (Salmacis)  Syrinx, Echo Apollo:  Prophecy, healing, music  Epithet: Phoebus - ‘Shining One’  Joins gods on Olympus  Motif of musical contests o Marsyas (satyr) o Pan: Tmolus and Midas  Contradictory nature o Healer/destroyer o Compassionate/ruthless o Rational control/extreme emotion  Origins obscure  In Greece circa 2000 BC  ‘Good Shepherd’/sun god  Antithesis to Dionysus  Birth: Leto’s persecution o Delos, Ortygia (Cyclades) o Eileithyia CLAS203 Lecture 14 & 15 Notes ***WILL NOT BE TESTED*** CLAS203 Lecture 16 Notes Hestia:  Is oldest and youngest of the Olympians; born first, but vomited last by Cronus  Also known as Vesta  Always paired up with Hermes (duality of traveller vs. someone who doesn’t move at all)  Represents the unmoving center  First born of Cronus and Rhea  Virgin: rejects both Poseidon and Apollo  Never left Olympus  Goddess of the hearth – sacred fire  Defines internal space of female world o Woman’s duty to tend the fire  Left out the canon of the Olympians  Vesta: goddess of hearth as center of family life (extended to the Roman community; was more important to Roman’s then the Greeks)  Vestal Virgins: Temple of Vesta in Roman Forum  Highly regarded and important Aphrodite:  Influential and interesting goddess  Also known as Venus (Roman)  Ancient (12 c. BC), non-Greek – probably coming to Greece from the east  Two genealogies: o First generation gods – springs from semen of castration of Uranus o Daughter of Zeus and Dione  Double origin o Cyprus (Cypris), Cythera – twoislandsassociated with her o Two names: Ourania (heavenly Aphrodite), Pandemos (for all people)  Sexual attraction, beauty  Power over even the gods  Sacred animal: dove  Worship of Aphrodite/Inanna/Ishtar/Astarte: temple prostitution  Myths: o Pygmalion (king of Cyprus) and Galatea (comes to life from a statue through Pygmalion praying to Aphrodite) o Paphos (daughter of Pygmalion and Galatea) and Cinyras (a king), Myrrha (daughter of Paphos and Cinyras, punished to love her father because Paphos said she was as beautiful as Aphrodite. Gets pregnant and her father was about to kill her, when she prays and gets turned into a mur tree), Adonis (son of Myrrha and her father Cinyras) o Anchises (Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite)  Eros o Plato’s Symposium: the tale of Aristophanes o Psyche and Cupid (Apuleius: The Golden Ass)  Venus: mother of the Romans (the coupling through Aeneas) o Consort was Mars CLAS203 Lecture 17 Notes Athena:  Also known as Minerva (Roman)  Always has her war gear, her helmet, shield, spear  Non-Greek origin  Early arrival in Greece (Linear B tablets)  Virgin goddess  Symbols: owl, serpent (at feet, on shield), aegis (goat skin pad)  Norn from Zeus’ head – deification of wisdom  Teacher of arts weaving o Carpentry (shipbuilding – Jason’s Argo) o Taming and training of horses o Inventor of the flute  Protectress of the hero o Perseus (son of Danae) – kills the Gorgon (Medusa) o Jason (son of Aeson) – the Golden Fleece o Bellerophon – tames flying horse Pegasus o Achilles (son of Peleus) – Trojan War o Odysseus (son of Laertes) – Trojan War  Goddess of war: spear, helmet, shield o On shield, aegis, Gordon’s head  Epithets o ‘glaukopis’ – ‘grey/keen/owl-eyed’ o Pallas Athena Tritogenia  (Palladium) – Odysseus, Diomedes  Athena and Arachne  Minerva: Italian deity, introduced by Etruscans  Armed woman, original war goddess?  Shared festival with Mars  Goddess of activities of mental skill (*men-) Artemis:  Other name is Diana (Roman)  Twin to Apollo  ‘Mistress of Animals’  Birth on Ortygia (Delos)  Goddess of chastity, huntress: pitiless  Silver bow, deer  Myths: o Niobe (Queen of Thebes, mother of many children. Niobe ridicules women who went to pay tribute to Leto who is Apollo and Artemis’ mother. Apollo slays all of Niobe’s sons and Artemis slays all of Niobe’s daughters with their arrows. Crying her eyes out, Zeus pities Niobe and transforms her into a rock) o Actaeon (Was born to a good family; is a hunter and would go through the woods with his pack of hounds. He comes across Artemis and her nymphs while bathing and saw Artemis nude, she punishes Actaeon by turning him into a deer, who gets rip to shreds by Actaeon’s own pack of hounds) o Callisto and Arcas (Callisto was a nymph of Artemis. When sleeping under a tree, Zeus has his way with her. No longer a virgin, Callisto hides the fact from Artemis, expect was discovered when she becomes pregnant. Artemis turns Callisto into a bear out of rage and the bear gives birth to a human boy named Arcas who was raised by hunters. Years later, Arcas noticed he was followed by a female bear and upon stringing his bow; Zeus stops Arcas from shooting his mother. Zeus honours Callisto and Arcas by placing them into the heavens as constellation) o Hippolytus, son of Theseus (Euripides’ Hippolytus)  Diana: same attributes Demeter:  Another name is Ceres (Roman)  Mother goddess (-meter = ‘mother’)  Fruitfulness of crops, especially wheat  Daughter is Persephone (Zeus and Demeter): ‘the two goddesses’ o Permanently fertile earth: seasonal giver of grain o Kore (means young women; alternate name for Persephone – daughter), Proserpine: parthenos (means the girl not yet women)  Abduction by Hades (Homeric Hymn to Demeter)  Etiology o Marriage o Presence of death in the world o Allegory of seasons? CLAS203 Lecture 18 Notes Demeter:  Abduction of Persephone by Hades where the ground rips open, a black chariot snatches Persephone and takes her away. Persephone vanishes and Demeter leaves all her fertility tasks while searching for her daughter all over the world. While Demeter rests at a well (in a disguise as an old women), the daughters of a king from a nearby palace offer Demeter to go back with them to their home. While at the palace, the queen (Metaneira) hire Demeter to be the nurse for her newborn son (Demophon). While Demeter tends to Demophoon, she grants him the gift of immortality by holding him over a fire (requires more than one treatment).  Eleusis: Metaneira, Demophoon, Triptolemus o Gift of agriculture – taught to Triptolemus o Triptolemus was often seeing in a winged chariot, given by Persephone to spread the gift of agriculture o Lyncus, king of the Scythians refused gift and so was turned into a lynx  Eleusinian Mysteries o Lesser: yearly; greater: every 5 years o Mystai, Telesterion, Anakteron o Pan-Hellenic (open to all Greek speakers without blood guilt) o Secret; penalty for revealing mysteries: death o Lasted until 396 AD Dionysus:  Often known as Bacchus (Roman)  Cadmus o Cadmus marries Harmonia; have many children. One of them, Semele, is the only mortal who has a child with Zeus who becomes an Olympian o Son of Agenor, king of Tyre o King of Thebes o Eastern ties (Thrace, Phrygia) o Late introduction into Greece? o Portrayed as strange and foreign god o Other seen with a satyr o Oriental dress (long robes) o Often seen with a long beard, agriculture/vegetation around him, and is carrying a drinking horn o Dionysus comes into contact with his worshippers moreso then any other gods o Myth motifs:  Travels – not always welcomed back into Greece because he was not Greek  Resistance o Name: ‘twice born’  Death of Semele  Birth from Zeus’ thigh  Nursed by Ino and Thamas or the nymphs of Nysa (Nysa not on map)  Madness of Ino and Athamas (As a result of Hera being jealous over Zeus having kids with other consorts)  God of: o Vegetation (especially vine, ivy) o Wine (and other fluid) o Animals (especially bear, panther, lion, leopard) o Fertility: ‘dying god’ o Death and rebirth  Cult and worship: o Thiasus – band of followers; identified by staff of fennel and/or topped by pinecones o Thyrsus o Omophagia – the eating of raw food o Sparagmos – the ripping apart o Bacchae, Bacchantes, Maenads  Worship characteristics: o Ekstasis ‘standing outside of oneself’ o Enthousiamos ‘god within’ o Irrational behaviour: liberation from constraints of reason, tradition o Furious music and dance o Intense music and dance o Intense emotion o Loss of personal identity  Opposed by Hera: woman’s role to preserve stability of family  Background to myths: o Discovers wine making in Nysa o Hera strikes him with madness: wanders in delirium  Wanderings: o Egypt, Syria o Phrygia: cured of madness by goddess Cybele o Crosses Euphrates o Goes as far as India  Returns by Phrygia: Midas and Silenus (follower of Dinoysus, is a satyr)  Rescue of Ariadne (daughter of Minos) – Dionysus marries her o Helped Theseus kill Minotaur (Crete) o Abandoned on Naxos  Resistance: o Thrace: opposed by Lycurgus (several variants)  Dionysus goes to Thrace and asks them to worship him. King of Thrace opposes his rule. Dionysus strikes the people of Thrace to be mad. The inhabitants of Thrace stake out the king and stake him out to the meadows to be eaten by man-eating horses raw o Orchomenus (see map): King Minyas and his daughter, the Minyads (bats)  King Minyas and the Minyads want nothing to do with Dionysus. As other woman of Orchomenus goes to worship Dionysus, the Minyads refuse and make jokes about Dionysus. A boy appears in the middle of the room. Darkness soon falls, milk drips from the furniture, and furious music ensues. The Minyads are driven mad, goes out to the wilderness (one Minyad rips her son in half) and eventually are turned into bats CLAS203 Lecture 19 Notes Dionysus:  Resistance: o Argos: King Proetus and his daughter, the Proetids  Similar to the daughters of Minyads. The Proetids are driven mad and think they are cows. They go out into the wilderness and start feasting on infants and finally two gets reclaimed. o Attica (Icarium): Icarius (not Icarus!), Erigone, Maera  Dionysus is hosted by Icarius in Attica. Dionysus rewards Icarius by telling him the secret of making wine. Icarius puts this knowledge into practice and decides to share the wine with all the other inhabitants. The other inhabitants in Attica think Icarius is trying to poison him so they kill Icarius. Icarius’ daughter Erigone, and her dog Maera, go to search for Icarius’ body. Upon finding it, in despire, Erigone and Maera commit suicide. Dionysus afflicts the area with famine and with madness. It takes the intervention of the king of Athens to punish the murderers before the madness leaves and the women become fruitful again. o Thebes: Tiresias, Cadmus, Pentheus, Agave (Baccae by Euripides)  Dionysus wants to go home and visit his home city. He goes to Thebes and has two goals: to establish himself as a god to be worshipped and to punish the sisters of Semele for spreading rumours about her, particularly Agave. Dionysus comes with a group of his followers, the Baccae, and encourages the people of Thebes to worship him. Some women and men are very much in agreement to join the Baccae. Tiresias, the prophet, and Cadmus, the aging King of Thebes are part of Dionysus followers. Cadmus passed on the throne to his son, Pentheus, who does not want anything to do with worshipping Dionysus is on the verge to calling the army to get back the women who have gone out to worship Dionysus. A young boy appears in Pentheus’ courtroom who warns him that the god should not be opposed and is dangerous. The boy tells Pentheus to accept the god, but instead of accepting the offer, Pentheus has the boy chained. Following the act, there is an earthquake and the palace is in ruins; the only thing remained standing is the prison where the young boy was. Warning Pentheus the second time, Pentheus agrees to go see what the
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