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McGill University
CLAS 203
Margaret Palczynski

CLAS203 Lecture 26 Notes The Founding of Thebes:  Boeotia  Two foundings: one local, one foreign  Mythologically, Thebes was found from the East; “Cadmus” means from the East  Foreign founding: o Agenor (Tyre) sends his sons to find their sister, Europa o Europa, Cadmus seeks help from Oracle, oracle tells him to follow the cow until it lies down and to found a city at that place o Oracle o Dragon combat – to sacrifice cow, Cadmus needs water, sends his companions to get water from spring only to find it was guarded by a dragon as the spring was sacred to Ares; dragon kills companion so Cadmus goes to fetch water himself, and slays the dragon. Cadmus takes its teeth guided by Athena and keeps half of them; half goes to Jason o Spartoi – best line of men of Thebans, came from dragon’s tooth resurrecting men, fighting each until 5 remain who becomes Cadmus’ companions  Local founding o Chthonius (inner part of city), Nicteus, Niteis, Antiope o Zethus and Amphion: second founding but leave no direct descents o blend of stories  Near Eastern saga and local folklore may have combined stories together  Historical basis? o Polydorus does not just come to take over Thebes. During the transition, a local line takes over, Chtonius  Nicteus  Nicteis & Antiope  Zethus (shepard and hunter) & Amphion (music – builds wall of Thebes with music) o Polydorus comes in now and marries Nicteis and has Labdacus The House of Labdacus:  Labdacus  Laius o Exile: Pelops (King of Elis) o Contravenes the traditions of hospitality, rapes son of Pelops, Chrysippus o Cursed – works its way through generations o Returns to Thebes and oracles (oracle tells Laius his son will kill him) o Marriage to Jocasta (descendent of the noble Thebans) – makes Laius drunk and has sex with him because Laius refuses to sleep with her due to oracle o Rules and reigns Thebes o Exposing of Oedipus ‘swellfoot’ on Mt. Cithaeron o Polybus, Merope (King and Queen) of Corinth  Thebes: arrival of Sphinx (Typhoeus) due to curse o Thebans are scared and cannot do anything o Sphinx asks riddle, if solved, Sphinx will kill herself o Laius goes to Delphi o Creon as regent  Oedipus at Corinth o Keeps hearing rumours that he isn’t the true son of Polybus and Merope; asks them and they refuse to tell him the truth o Seeking the truth at Delphi: the prophecy says he will kill his father and marry his mother. Hearing the prophecy, Oedipus runs away from Corinth (thinking Polybus and Merope were the parents from the oracle); goes to Thebes to avoid the prophecy o Murder on the road to Thebes, sees a rich man in a chariot coming towards him, whips Oedipus for being in the way, Oedipus kills the man, then proceeds to Thebes o Arrival at Thebes: finds out the king has gone missing, Sphinx continues to ravage and kill Thebans, Creon offers the hand of Jocasta and the kingship to whomever can defeat the Sphinx. Oedipus decides to go for the challenge o Solving of the riddle, Sphinx kills herself, and gets the rewards o Marriage to Jocasta: has Antigone, Ismene, Eteocles, Polynices o Ruler of Thebes Lecture 27:  Oedipus’ fate o Homer: marries Epicasta – Homer’s story of Oedipus does not have him poking his eyes out, much different version o Sophocles: The Theban Cycle (not a trilogy) Chronological As Written Oedipus Tyrannos (Oedipus the King) Antigone (early) Oedipus at Colonus Oedipus Tyrannos (middle) Antigone Oedipus at Colonus (late)  Oedipus Tyrannos (Tyrannos means ruler) o Starts the story as Oedipus already king and has been ruling Thebes for a while with his children born already o Plague hits Thebes sent by gods (sign of pollution due to blood guilt that has not been atoned for/punished), Oedipus sends Creon to see the oracle; says the murdered of King Laius has not gone unpunished o Oedipus says that whoever is the murderer will go in exile o Oedipus curses murderer of Laius o Tiresias – Oedipus asks the blind prophet who the murder of Laius is. Tiresias tells Oedipus not to ask, that he doesn’t want to know. Oedipus accuses Tiresias and Creon plotting against him; Tiresias gets angry enough and tells him that Oedipus is the murderer of Laius o Shepherd from Corinth  Death of Polybus  Origins of Oedipus o The Theban shepherd o Jocasta’s suicide o Anagnorismos “recognition” o Peripeteia “reversal” CLAS203 Lecture 27 Notes  Oedipus Tyrannos (Tyrannos means ruler) o Shepherd from Corinth  Death of Polybus  Origins of Oedipus o The Theban shepherd o Jocasta’s suicide o Anagnorismos “recognition of the tragic hero that they are in the wrong” o Peripeteia “reversal of the tragic hero – everything goes downhill”  Oedipus at Colonus o Oedipus and Antigone at large in a village of Colonus sitting on a stone o Approached by a villager who tells them to leave as they are sitting on the Grove of Erinyes at Colonus, Oedipus recognizes the prophecy that he would die at the place sacred to the Furies for which he’ll be a blessing to the land o Villagers find out his identity and is horrified to find out that he is the son of Laius. Wants him to leave. Oedipus asks Theseus to come and villagers wait for the judgment of their king o Arrival of Ismene: the oracle heard by both sons that where Oedipus lies will determine the outcome of the conflict o Creon approaches to bury him at the boarder of Thebes (Thebes for Eteocles), Polynices gathering support from the Argives to attack the city o Oedipus curses his sons, pledges alliance with neither of his sons but to the people of Colonus, who have treated him well. Ismene volunteers to perform appeasing tasks to appease the villagers for trespassing the holy ground of the Furies o Oedipus offers his gift to Theseus and the people of Colonus. Creon arrives, says he already captured Ismene and orders his men to capture Antigone. Theseus comes and overpower Creon and gets back Antigone and Ismene o Polynices arrives (after being banished from Thebes) and speaks to Oedipus (through Antigone’s persuasion), Polynices asks for his father to relent and help him win back Thebes. Oedipus says the curse will have Polynices and his brother, Eteocles, kill each other. Antigone tries to tell Polynices not to attack Thebes but he doesn’t leave, then making an exit. o Rescued by Theseus o Final fate of Oedipus: asks Theseus to look after his daughters, only Theseus could know his burying grounds and pass it on to his heirs. In a flash of light, Theseus is gone. Antigone leaves to Thebes, hoping to stop the Seven Against Thebes from marching  Seven Against Thebes (Aeschylus) o Eteocles (army of Thebes and supporters), Polynices (army of Argive) o Argos: Adrastus (king of Argos): solved dispute between Tydeus and Polynices by offering his daughters due to an oracle made that man who carried a shield with a bore (Tydeus) and one of a lion (Polynices). Prepares for war against Thebes but Amphiaraus foretold that those who went to war would not return  Tydeus (fugitive of Calydon) – wounded by Melanippus  Eriphyle, Amphiaraus  Capaneus, Hipomedon, Parthenopaeus  Thebes o Oracles: sacrifice of Menoecius when was told by Teirsias to allow the Thebans to conquer. Menoecius sacrifices himself outside the gates of Thebes o Deaths: Capaneus o Tydeus vs. Melanippus: Melanippus wounds Tydeus and was killed by Amphiaraus. Tydeus eats Melanippus’ brains; Athena, on her way to Tydeus to give him the gift of immortality, decides to revoke his gift, leaving him to die o Flight of Adrastus (Arion) o Polynices vs. Eteocles – kills each other  Antigone o Creon’s decree o ‘Burial’ of Polynices’ body o Antigone vs. Creon o Haemon, Tiresias, Euridyce o The messenger’s speech  Epigoni o Death of Tiresias CLAS203 Lecture 28 Notes Continuation from Lecture 27:  Antigone o Antigone was brought to Creon and confessed to burying Polynices. Asked if she knew about his decree; says she did it not as a defiance but because it was right, and traditionally a custom; says she follows divine law (gods law), not Creon’s law. Antigone is sentenced to death and Creon goes further by saying Ismene must have been involved as well so she must die as well. Ismene told Antigone previously that she wanted no part in burying Polynices but when brought to see Creon, she changes her story and says she had a part in burying Polynices. Antigone tells Ismene that she has no right to claim anything since you rejected it (trying to save Ismene’s life). Creon has Antigone placed in a sealed cave so that she would starve to death o Creon’s decree o ‘Burial’ of Polynices’ body o Antigone vs. Creon o Haemon is son of Creon – begs his father to not let Antigone die, leaves stage when Creon does not listen o Tiresias comes and tells Creon that his decree is not honouring the gods causing evil omen, Creon does not believe Tiresias calling him liar. Tiresias prophesizes again that Haemon will die because of Creon’s decree. Creon finally realizes after the prophecy that his decree was wrong and not justifying the gods; asks Tiresias what to do and goes to save Antigone (which would save his own son, Haemon) o Messenger comes in and tells Creon that Haemon found a way into the sealed cave and found that Antigone had hanged herself. Creon meets up with Haemon, apologizes but Haemon being in grief attempts to kill Creon, misses, and then goes to kill himself, clutching Antigones’ body in front of his father o Queen Euridyce, learns of all the events, including death of her son Haemon, and kills herself; leaving Creon ruined at the end of the Antigone o The messenger’s speech o Take out of this that you have to obey the laws of the gods and that man-made laws are fleeting and can change and are not the things that will hold you to be fair  Epigoni (means the ancestors) o Talks about the ancestors of the seven heroes who had gone against Thebes o Their sons who will organize a second expedition at Thebes o Only one hero from Seven against Thebe, Adrastus (King of Argos), who had fled on his divine steed and goes to the Alter of Mercy in Athens, and asks Theseus to help him to avenge the wrongs that are being done to the people of Argos to not having their bodies buried due to Creon’s decree o Second siege against Thebes is brought about when Eriphyle, wife of Amphiarus (seer of Argos who prophesized that they would all die and ordered his son, Alcmaeon to kill Eriphyle if she ever told him to go to war again.) is bribed by Harmonia and Phasander (son of Polynices) o Tiresias prophesizes to new ruler of Thebes that they must flee so Laodamus takes all the people of Thebes and they emigrate out of Thebes to Ilgria o New seven of Thebes destroy Thebes; Alcmaeon seeks advise from Oracle and does kill his mother, Eriphyle but goes crazy after, thus gets murdered o Death of Tiresias when they flee Start of Lecture 28:  Atreus and Thyestes – are twins and hates each other, important to development of their story Beginning of Homeric Epics – House of Atreus are responsible for going to war in Troy From Tantalus to Atreus:  Mycenae/Argos: both locations used in myth. Myceanae used to be main center of bronze age while Argos grew in power during early iron age  Unrelated to Perseus linked (extinct with Eurystheus)  Tantalus (one of the great sinners in the underworld, punished by Zeus to be constantly thirsty and hungry but cannot get to the food or water right in front of him): Tested the gods but killing his son, Pelops, and serving it to the gods at a banquet, only Demeter, sadden over Persephone being abducted, ate the shoulder of Pelops; Zeus told Hermes to put Pelops back together except missing shoulder, thus Hephaestus crafted Pelops an ivory shoulder  Oenomaus (King of Pisa): loves his own daughter, Hippodamia o Hippodamia: refused Oenomaus, father thought if he couldn’t have her, nobody could, challenged any suitors who wanted to in a chariot race. Many suitors came, all killed by Oenomaus o Pelops attempts to win Hippodamia’s hand. Being a favourite of Poseidon, he gets a golden chariot with horses that never tires. To make sure he would win, Pelops bribes Myrtilus (son of Hermes) who was a charioteer of King Oenomaus. Pelops promises Myrtilus that he would get to sleep with Hippodamia on the first night after winning the race. Myrtilus changes the bolt of Oenomaus’s chariot to wax, thus dragging Oenomaus to his death during the race allowing Pelops to be purified o Myrtilus attemps to claim his reward but Pelops pushes him off a cliff and during his fall, Myrtilus puts a curse on Pelops and his line  Pelops o Sons Atreus and Thyestes (sons of official wife) sent by Hippoamia to murder Chrysippus (bastard son from Nymph) o Returns to Pisa to be king – names region after him o Peolops puts his wife and his two sons sent on exiled to Mycenae o Purified, appointed as regents by Eurystheus o Death of Eurystheus at hands of Heraclidae  The kingship of Mycenae o Oracle: ‘Choose one of Pelops’ sons as king.’ o Earlier, Atreus had vowed best lamb to Artemis o Atreus found golden lamb earlier, but hid fleece o Aerope (Atreus’ wife) gave fleece to lover Thyestes o Thyestes’ proposal: the owner of a golden fleece to be the king since this would be a sign o Thyestes as king, but Artreus is not happy so suggests a second sign o The second sign should be the sun’s movement where if the son moves from the west to the east, then that would be a sign of Zeus’ displeasure o Atreus becomes king, kills his wife and sends Thyestes in exiled o Atreus’ revenge: banquet for Thyestes where Atreus cooks Thyestes’ three sons and serves it to Thyestes. Atreus shows Thyestes the head of his three sons. o Thyestes flees in revolt and puts a second curse on Atreus and his line of descedents o Atreus has two sons, Agamemnon, Menelaus  Thyestes’ revenge o Sicyon: oracle, ‘son by own daughter will kill Atreus’ (Thyestes must have a child with his own daughter, Pelopia to punish his brother) o Meeting with Pelopia: unknown to father o Rape and after rape, Thyestes forgets his sword, leaves sword (recognition token) in Pelopia’s possession o Atreus while on his hunt for Thyestes, sees Pelopia and finds her attractive; marries her o Aegisthus born, raised as Atreus’ son o Thyestes: goes to Delphi (still trying to ‘find’ daughter, not knowing that she already has his own daughter)  Atreus: search for Thyestes o Sends Agamemnon and Menelaus to Delphi to inquire where to find Thyestes o Agamemnon and Menelaus finds Thyestes at Delphi, take him back to Atreus o Recognition of Thyestes by Aegisthus (son of Thyestes), who Atreus chooses to kill Thyestes. Thyestes asks Argisthus where he got the sword from, says it was from his mother; Pelopia finds out she bore a child with her own father; commits suicide. Argisthus realizes he was about to kill his own father, brings sword with Pelopia’s blood to Atreus. o Death of Atreus by Argisthus: Thyestes becomes king of Mycenae o Agamemnon and Menelaus forced into exile - flee to Sparta where they reside in House of Tyndareus o Tyndareus sympathetic to both Agamemnon and Menelaus’ cause; organizes his soldiers and helps Agamemnon and Menelaus re-seize the throne of Mycenae o Agamemnon becomes the king Key Terms: Places: Mycenae, Argos, Pisa, Sparta Characters: Tantalus, Pelops, Oenomaus, Hippodamia, Myrtilus, Atreus, Thyestes, Chrysippus, Aerope, Pelopia, Agamemnon, Menelaus, Aegisthus Themes:  Sin begets sin (it all begins with Tantalus)  Tragic fate: commit crimes consciously (vs. Oedipus – victim of fate)  Unending cycle of revenge  Curses, incest, blood guilt, oracles, recognition, succession  Main theme of this story is that blood guilt tends to go in a circle and it never ends and why beginning of Archaic age, Greeks attempted to find ways to control blood feuding because it would go in circles until one competing line was extinguished Beginning of Lecture 29: Sparta: the Oath of Tyndareus  Agamemnon, Menelaus in exile – Sparta o Tyndareus is king of Spara; helps Agamemnon and Menelaus reclaim Mycenae o Leda and the swan – has four children  Polydeuces and Helen (semi-divine; Zeus)  Clytemnestra and Castor (from Tyndareus – mortal) o Polydeuces and Castor are famous twins that are inseparable. Castor is killed during raid; Polydeuces grieves and asks Zeus to alternate between underworld and Olympus o Clytemnestra was married to Agamemnon o Helen was too beautiful so Tyndareus was reluctant to let her marry one person in fear that the others would turn against him o Odysseus proposes to Tyndareus that should he be given another wife, a niece of Tyndareus, the proposal is that whoever gets chosen as husband of Helen will have the full backing of Tyndareus and that the other contestants would protect what is that of Tyndareus and would have to pursue whoever steals her or destroy the pack. All suitors agreed. o Dioscuri: brotherly devotion CLAS203 Lecture 29 Notes The Oath of Tyndareus:  There were many suitors for the Helen’s hand (semi-divine daughter of Tyndareus): Odysseus, Diomedes, Ajax, Philoctetes, Patroclus, Menelaus…  Tyndareus was scared of giving Helen to any one suitor in fear that the other suitors would go against him afterwards  Odysseus, who came from a poor region, knew that he wouldn’t have a chance, but proposes to Tyndareus a solution about Helen in exchange for marriage to one of his niece, Penelope. Odysseus proposes a stratagem of oath (oath of Tyndareus), in which the suitor of Helen would have the support of Tyndareus and that all the other suitors must swear to protect what is that of Tyndareus (including Helen) and to protect whoever tries to defy and/or hurt Helen  Menelaus + Helen (chooses Menelaus)  has a daughter named  Clytemnestra (sister of Helen) marries Agamemnon  has three children named: Iphigeneia, Electra, Orestes.  Agamemnon returns to (Homer’s Iliad says he comes from) Mycenae (Argos)  The Judgment of Paris o Wedding of Peleus and Thetis (Achilles). Peleus’ father is King of Aegina (Aeacus), island off the coast of Athens in Saronic Gulf. Peleus and his brother Telemon killed their half-brother, Phocus, and were exiled. Peleus went to Phthia to be purified. Peleus married the sea-nymph, Thetis, which makes Hera happy knowing that Zeus did not have sex with Thetis. Hera organizes large wedding but forgets to invite Eris (strife) o Eris and the Golden Apple: was not invited to Peleus and Thetis’ wedding; comes anyways and brings a Golden Apple and rolls it on the ground and yells, “To the fairest goddess”. Zeus tells Hermes and escorts the three goddesses to Paris, a farmer. Hera offers Paris dominion over the whole world. Athena offers him the most glorious military career. Aphrodite offers him the most beautiful women in the world. Paris chooses Aphrodite as the fairest goddesses in the world; creates tension amongst goddesses. Paris cannot claim Helen since she is already married o The judgment of Paris  The start of the Trojan War: o The abduction of Helen by Paris/Alexander (son of Priam and Hecuba) o Paris was prophesized to be Troy’s destruction – Hecuba’s dream, leaves Paris on Mt. Ida, shepherds came by and raised Paris, Paris goes into Troy and compete in competitions and wins, is recognized by people as son of Priam and Hecuba. Cassandra, sister of Paris, prophesizes that Paris will be the destruction of Troy. Paris, as prince of Troy, sails to Mycenaean to claim Helen. Menelaus offers his home to Pairs (Xenia: guest-host relationship) but leaves due to attending funeral. Paris using the opportunity abducts Helen back to Troy, sets out the ‘Oath of Tyndareus’. o The mustering of the Greek host at Aulis to set sail to troy, waiting for favouring wind. o The angering of Artemis and the sacrifice: Agamemnon boasted that he was the best hunter and thus provoked Artemis who calmed the wind. Only way to get the wind is to sacrifice, Iphigeneia, daughter of Agamemnon. Agamemnon puts on the yolk of necessity and sacrifice Iphigeneia, giving them a favouring wind all the way to Troy o The sailing of the fleet Trojan War: The Greeks  The Atreidae: Agamemnon and Menelaus  Achilles, son of Peleus (Myrmidons – people who followed Achilles, Phthia (born in)) o Achilles is hiding in Skyros due to Thetis orders o Immortality/invulnerability (Styx) – Thetis dips Achilles in River Styx, hence only vulnerable in his heels o Chiron – Achilles sent to train with Chiron after Thetis leaves because Peleus did not want her hurting Acheilles o The prophecy, ‘kleos’ (glorious) – either Achilles will live a long and boring life or a short, but glamorous one o The trick: Thetis, Scyros, ‘Pyrrha’ (name of Achilles while hiding in women’s quarters), Odysseus o Patroclus – best of Myrmidons, best friend of Achilles o Neoptolemus – son of Achilles  Odysseus, son of Laertes (Ithaca) o Marries Penelope, have son Telemachus o King of Ithaca o has many epithets – understands suffering o The trick by: Palamedes – Odysseus doesn’t want to fight, faints madness by pretending plowing his fields with salt. Palamedes brings Telemachus and puts him in front of Odysseus who could choose to kill his son or stops plowing. Odysseus stops plowing, proving he is not mad, thus having to go to war with Palamedes o En route to Troy  The loss of Philoctetes (Lemnos) – while on the island of Tenedos, propitiated Apollo at his alter and a snake came out and bit Philoctetes. Thinking the wound would get better, they return to the boat. The wound festered and the smell from the wound was too much. Left Philoctetes on the island of Lemnos with his bow from Heracles o Odysseus ‘of many wiles’  Diomedes, son of Tydeus o ‘of the war cry’ – epithet o One of the best warrior o Prowess at war o Odysseus’ companion o Wounds Ares and Aphrodite (when she tried to save Aeneus) during the battles of Troy  Ajax, son of Telamon (brother of Peleus, father of Achilles) o Second best figure on the Greek side o Figure-eight shield o Epithet is bow-work o Great warrior  Nestor, King of Pylos o Aged king o Wisdom o Advisor  Calchas, the seer who foretells the sacrifice to Artemis o Priest of Apollo The Trojans:  Tros is king of Trojans who has three sons  Ilus (name for Troy)  Priam, king of Troy during Trojan War (son of Laomedon) o Hecabe (Hecuba) o 50 sons, 50 daughters  Hector o Andromache, Astyanax o Defender of Troy  Paris (Alexander) o Destined to destroy Troy (Hecabe’s dream) o Archer  Helenus o Seer o Only male of Priam’s line to survive o Twin of Cassandra o Goes over to the Greeks after Paris’ death when Priam gives Helen to Deiphobus  Deiphobus: o Younger brother o Given Helen as wife after Paris’ death  Cassandra  Polyxena CLAS203 Lecture 30 Notes  The Commodities of Heroism: o Time – Honour (within a system of reciprocity) o Aidos – Shame (a social feeling in front of others) o Kleos – Glory (Heroes out for glory) o General system is that heroes are after glory, that they are only doing things with the assumption that they will get honour and pay honour in return and to avoid shame  Achilles Alliance: o Achilles was “pissed off” because all the others were fighting due to “Oath of Tyndareus” and were under assumption of reciprocal honour. Achilles was not bound by oath. Agamemnon distributed prize whenever they took over a place o Achilles has a girl called Briseis and Agamemnon took Cryses (daughter of priest of Apollo), Apollo sends down plague against Greeks. Calchas determines reason why plague hit the Greeks. Agamemnon says he will give up Cryses only if he get Briseis, Achilles refuses (due to system of honour and that he wanted glory) and stops fighting for the Greeks o Agamemnon sends Ajax, Odysseus, and Phoinix to try and get Achilles to go back to fighting. Makes it clear that Agamemnon was only half-trying and states that he is still the better man  Trojan Community: o No oath of Tyndareus o Small communities of different tongues coming to help the Trojans fight; same idea of reciprocity, being rewarded for what they are giving o Sarpedon, one of the leaders of these allies calls out Hector that he can’t see any reciprocity being exchanged o Sarpedon dies where he is killed by Patroclus who dresses up as Achilles and goes into battle. Kills Sarpedon who is Zeus’ son o Glaukos, another leader bashes Hector for not being a leader in his end of reciprocity. o Death is probably what the Iliad was about  Hector and Andromache: o Hector constantly operated under constraints of strain and his position o Andromache begs him not to leave her and their son a second time to go fight but Hector replies that if he did not fight, he would feel great shame o Hector ends up dying under Achilles  Death of Patroclus and Aftermath of Achilles: o Reason why Achilles goes back fighting o Patroclus dresses up as Achilles and goes to fight, kills Sarpedon but dies when Hector kills him thinking he was Achilles o Was going to run around the city three times to gain strength from Apollo, but Athena tricks him by pretending to be his brother and tells him to go fight o Hector faces Achilles, attempts to make agreement with him to allow the burial of the other; Achilles does not agree o Achilles does not speak of glory, something personal that transcends all the systems and exchanges expected. Payment is revenge even though revenge is not enough o Hector just wants glory (something worthy of glory), while Achilles wants revenge o Achilles kills Hector through Athena’s help o Priam goes to Achilles and begs him to return Hector to the Trojans. In addition, Achilles promises Priam that for eleven days, there will be truce so that the Trojans may bury Hector  Priam’s appeal to Achilles demonstrated that Hector was not trying to just win glory, he was trying protect his people  Achilles kills Hector not for Kleos, but for hate (depicted by Achilles dragging Hector in his chariot)  The idea of heroic ideal thus is not clear  Glory related to the material world vs. glory related to something a theory/religious reason  Relating Iliad and the Trojan War together in myth: what we know/think about a person is the way how reading the myth portrays it to us CLAS203 Lecture 31 Notes The End of the Trojan War:  Penthesilea (Amazon Queen, great warrior)  The death of Achilles  The arms of Achilles  The death of Ajax, son of Telamon  The death of Paris (Menelaus/Neoptolemus) Penthesilea:  Fights Achilles where she dies under his arms  Some rumours say that Achilles was not happy that he had killed a beautiful women and wished he had met her on some other occasion Death of Achilles:  Killed by Paris when shot by arrow in his heels; shot was guided by Apollo. Fate must be fulfilled. Both sides wanted his body. One to savage, the other to bury. Everybody wanted Achilles’ armour (made by Hephaestus)  Ajax pulls body of Achilles away to bury. Odysseus and Ajax fights for armour. Odysseus gets armour, Ajax did not get glory (“klous”), Athena causes him to go insane and he kills a lot of Greek captains, regains sanity and commits suicide  Motif transference: deliberate parallels between death of Patroclus and Achilles  Iliad foreshadows Achilles’ death with a heightened dramatic effect  Achilles stretched lying in the dust  Thetis and the Nereids coming out of the water to mourn in an outburst of sorrow  Thetis holding Achilles’ head in her arms The fall of Troy:  The prophecies of Helenus – few things must be fulfilled before Troy to fall o Neoptolemus (son of Achilles must join the fight) o The Bow of Heracles (Sophocles’ Philoctetes) – had to be retrieved from Lemnos o The Palladium (Odysseus and Diomedes) – statue of Athena as a city protector, came from Heaven, inside of Troy. Diometes and Odysseus disguised as beggar, steals it o The Trojan Horse:  Proposed by Odysseus  The trick to burn the camp: sail and hide behind island of Tenedos  Leave Greek Sinon near the horse; Trojans come out thinking that the Greeks gave up, and left the horse as a sacrifice of Athena for their safe return home  Cassandra – says don’t believe it, but because of curse, nobody believes her  Laocoon (Priest of Poseidon/Apollo) – hurled spear at horse, only to have wave kill him and horses. Trojans think this was a sign of gods’ displeasure. Takes Trojan horse inside their gates  The opening of the horse after the celebration gets everybody drunk, 50 soldiers open gates for other Greeks  The sack of Troy: death of Priam, Deiphobus (son of Priam, husband of Helen after Paris died, killed by Menelaus), Astyanax (son of Hector) o The escape of Aeneas, Anchises (father of Aeneas), Ascanius (son of Aeneas) o The division of the spoils: Hecabe (taken by Odysseus, curses Odysseus), Helen, Andromache (Epirus), Cassandra (goes with Agamemnon)  The Epic Cycle: th o Iliad covers only fourteen days of the 10 year of Trojan War o Epic Cycle: survives only in fragments and prose summaries o Includes the Cypria, Arthiopis, Little Ilias, Iliou Persis, Nosti and Telegoni o Abounds with the fantastic: magical objects, supernatural powers, comical  Folktale characteristics? o Some motif stayed from the bronze age o Homeric Epics zoomed on two very specific events: returns of Odysseus and two weeks before the end of the Trojan War CLAS203 Lecture 32 Notes The Oresteia Trilogy (written by Aeschylus): Nostos (return home)  The Agamemnon o At Argos: Clytemnestra (taken over control of the household while Agamemnon was gone, was not faithful to Agamemnon) and Aegisthus (son of Thyestes, was Clytemnestra’s lover) o The triumphant return – beacon light from sails, Agamemnon kisses ground to rejoice being home. Goes in his chariot back home with Cassandra o Hybris: The ‘walking on the carpet’ – never boasts that it was Agamemnon’s own doing, but rather the gods help. Clytemnestra tells him to step on silk tapestry as a sign of superiority even though he didn’t want to, but Clytemnestra taunts him by saying “what would Priam do?” Agamemnon thus commits hybris. Cassandra tells the elder groves that both herself and Agamemnon will die by Clytemnestra’s hands o Murder of Cassandra and Agamemnon – Clytemnestra brings body out and rejoices that she has had revenge for Agamemnon’s sacrifice of Iphigenia o Aegisthus wants to proclaim kingship, but everybody says he did nothing to the planning or the executing o What is Dike? (Dike is greek notion of justice, proper/custom order of things that must be done) o Clytemnestra is fulfilling Dike which is to have blood for blood or murder for murder; retribution  The Libation Bearers o Orestes (son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon) in exile, Phocis (area around Delphi), Pylades (returns with Orestes, son of King of Phocis) o Orestes sought the Oracles of Delphi and finds out that ‘you must kill his m
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