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CLAS 206
Martin Sirois

CLAS 206 QUIZ 1 STUDY GUIDE 30 MINS MULTIPLE CHOICE AND SHORT ANSWER (MAX 2 SENTENCES) Rome (closer to American Views) • Political and military ideology • Corruption and moral decline • Spectatorship and games at amphitheaters • Imperialism (political or cultural) Greece • Super-heroism • Female tragedies • Difficult subjects (philosophy) or cultural taboos (homosexuality) Aristotle • Credited with writing the first text on dramatic theory- how to make tragic drama [Poetics] ◦ Believed to have written a text on comedy too [Poetics, vol. 2], but it is lost • Aristotle returns to Athens and founds his own school, Lyceum ▪ 2 types of lectures: ▪ advanced students (morning) ▪ open public lectures (evening) • Aristotle's Poetics ◦ First systematic critical theory in the world ◦ Categories of literature: defining genres ◦ Influence in criticism of arts, aesthetics, literature ◦ Formalist approach to literature ◦ Poetry= forms of IMITATION ◦ Three aspects in which poetic genres (oral or written) can be distinguished from each other: ▪ 1. The medium through which they present their imitation ▪ i.e. painters use colors and shapes ▪ Poetry imitates by means of what? (hois) ▪ Rhythm, Language (logos), and Harmony ▪ i.e. Music combines rhythm and harmony; dance uses only rhythmical movement ▪ 2. the object of imitation ▪ Poetry imitates what? (ha) ▪ All poetry is the representation of the actions of human beings ▪ Ex: Tragedy- nobler, better men (morally superior) ▪ Ex: Comedy- lower, lesser men (morally inferior) ▪ 3. the mode or manner of the imitation ▪ Poetry imitates how? (hôs) ▪ Narrative (course of events as a story told by a narrator) ▪ Drama (course of events as an action enacted by actors- Greek definition) Tragedy • "Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude, with elements that should arouse pity and fear, so as to accomplish the catharsis (purgation) of such emotions" • Every tragedy must have six parts, which parts determine its quality-- namely, Plot, Characters, Thought (theme), Diction (artistic use of language), Song/Music, and Spectacle (opsis) • Plot ◦ Most important element ◦ "Representation of an Action" (Drama) aka something has to happen ◦ Must have a beginning, middle, and end structure ◦ Unity and probability ◦ Goal of Tragedy aka Catharsis "purifying or relieving of emotions" ◦ Catharsis accomplished through Pity and Fear ▪ Pity: aroused by undeserved misfortune ▪ Fear: aroused by the misfortune of a man like ourselves ◦ Plot Elements: the plot has 3 parts ▪ Reversal of Fortune (good to bad and vice versa) ▪ "The change of fortune from good to bad should come about as a result, not of vice, but some great error of frailty in character" ▪ Recognition ▪ Discovery, new knowledge ▪ Oedipus King recognized as one of the best scenes of recognition from good to bad ▪ Emotion • Character (personality) ◦ Characters should also be probable or necessary ◦ Hero ▪ Good (through his language and actions) ▪ Propriety (maintain social values) ▪ True to life (conformity): relatable (we should feel empathy) ▪ Consistency (some traits throughout) ◦ Hamartia (tragic flaw): much debated ▪ Hero mistakenly brings about his own downfall ▪ Not because he is sinful or morally weak, but because he doesn't know any better • Thought (or Theme) ◦ Not developed by Aristotle ◦ Probable 'theme' or ideas presented • Language (or Diction) ◦ Language must fit the personality ◦ Personality expressed/shown through their use of language (vocabulary, rhetoric) ◦ Reflects: social level, education, decorum, etc. ◦ In
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