Final Exam Notes

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McGill University
Ed Psych & Couns (Psychology)
EDPE 300
Camelia Birlean

EDPE 300: MIDTERM CONTENT Fall 2012 2: THEORIES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget children active & motivated learners construct knowledge from experiences interaction with physical & social environments essential for cognitive development cognitive development can proceed only after certain genetically controlled neurological changes occur Organization scheme: organized group of similar actions or thoughts basic blocks of thinking children organize what the learn and do into schemes Adaption schemes change over time assimilation: dealing with a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme accommodation: dealing with a new event by modifying an existing scheme/forming new one assimilation & accommodation typically work together Equilibration equilibrium: state of being able to explain new events by using existing schemes disequilibrium: an inability to explain new events by using existing schemes equilibration: movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium & back to equilibrium o promotes development of more complex forms of thought & knowledge 4 Stages of Cognitive Development sensorimotor stage (birth until age 2) o schemes based on behaviour & perceptions (5 senses) no mental schemes o develop object permanence: realization objects continue to exist even after they are removed from view o cause-effect relationships preoperational stage (2-7 years) o semiotic function (ability to use symbols) o think about objects beyond immediate view o schemes independent of immediate perceptions & behaviours o language skills explode o one-way logic o difficulty with principle of conservation: realization if nothing is added or taken away amount stays the same regardless of alternations in shape/arrangement o egocentrism: inability to view situations from another persons perspective collective monologue concrete operations stage (7-11 years) o concrete thinking (hands on thinking) EDPE 300: MIDTERM CONTENT Fall 2012 o identity o compensation o reversibility o multiple classification: recognition that objects may belong to several categories at once o seriation formal operations stage (12+) o scientific reasoning o abstract thinking o hypothetico-deductive reasoning o adolescent egocentrism: inability of individuals to separate their own abstract logic from the perspectives of others and from practical considerations o imaginary audience (not reached by all) Implications for Teachers gives understanding of how students think (match teaching approach to cognitive stage) since learners construct knowledge teachers can build on what is learned learners learn through play disequilibrium motivates learning Teaching the Preoperational Child use concrete props & visual aids make instruction short; use actions & words dont expect students to be consistent in ability to see world from another point of view be sensitive to possibility children may have different meanings for same word or different words for same meaning provide hands on practice provide wide variety of experiences to build foundation for concept learning & language Teaching the Concrete Operational Child continue using props & visual aids continue giving students change to manipulate & test objects keep presentations/readings brief & well organized use familiar examples give opportunity to classify & group objects/ideas present problems with logical & analytical thinking Helping Students Use Formal Operations continue to use concrete operational teaching strategies & materials give opportunity to explore many hypothetical questions give opportunity to solve problems & reason scientifically teach broad concepts & not just facts use materials/ideas relevant to students lives EDPE 300: MIDTERM CONTENT Fall 2012 Teachers Casebook The provincial curriculum guide calls for a unit on symbolism in poems. You are concerned that any of your grade 5 students may not be ready to understand this abstract concept. To test the waters you ask a few students to describe a symbol. Its sorts like a big metal thing that you bang together. My sister plays one in the high school band Sean adds. You realize that they are on the wrong track here so you try again, I was thinking of a different kind of symbol . . . like a heart as a symbol of love. You are met with blank stares. Trevor ventures, You mean like the Olympic torch? And what does that symbolizes, Trevor? you ask. I said the torch. Trevor wonders how you could be so dense. *+ To develop the concept of symbol I would first design activities in which students could engage independently or in small groups. For example, I might engage students in a matching activity that requires them to identify the symbolic meaning of concrete or real-life objects. I might create a worksheet that includes two lists: one list would include real-world objects, such as a dove or a heart (this list might be presented as pictures); the second list would include descriptions of the symbolic meaning of each object. Students would match the picture of the dove with peace. I might ask the students to generate their own symbols Vygotsky social interactions shape learning knowledge is co-constructed adults and peers scaffold Private Speech and Self Talk private speech: when thought and language merge self talk: talking to oneself as a way of guiding oneself through a task Piaget Vygotsky Developmental Significance not yet able to converse externalized thinking increases in youth, then is Course of Development declines with age internalized Relationship to Social negative; immature positive; prompted Relationship to Piaget did not comment increases with task difficulty Environmental Context Zone of Proximal Development zone of proximal development: range of tasks between actual development level and level of potential development o actual development level: extent to which one can successfully perform task independently o level of potential development: extent to which one can successfully execute task with assistance of a more competent individual scaffolding: support mechanism provided by more competent individual that helps learner successfully perform task within their ZPD fading: gradually withdraw support mechanisms
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