Geography, History, and Citizenship Education
Potential List of Mid-term Item Questions
Elaborate more than powerpoint- can write in point form.
• Mr. Help. (pg. 12 coursepack) used to enrich geography.
– Movement: Humans interacting on earth.
– Regions: How they form and change.
– Human-environment interaction
– Location: Position on Earth’s surface.
– Place. Physical and human characteristics.
• The 5 steps of the historical method.pg 23 in coursepack
– Inquiry/ Investigation. The selection of the subject for investigation. The historian
must ascertain who and what anyone else has written on the subject in order to
avoid duplication of effort.
– What and where? The collection of as many of the printed, written, and oral
materials bearing on the subject as possible.
– The verification of the sources as to their genuineness and veracity.
– External Criticism.
– Internal Criticism.
4. Extraction and Organization.
– Centering it all in. The extraction and organization of the data pertinent to the
subject under investigation.
– Creating a plausible narrative, while taking the limits of available evidence and
one’s subjectivity into account. The commitment of the findings into a meaningful
and interesting historical narrative.
• The two main theories of Aboriginal migration to North America. Pg. 94 of coursepack
o Via Beringia:
Over a land bridge (from russia to alaska).
N. America was first populate by nomadic peoples from Siberia, hunters who
followed game over a land bridge across the Bering straight into present-day
Alaska and the Yukon around the end of the last Ice Age.
o Via the sea:
“Leap-frogging” down the Pacific coast (by boat).
Travelled south by using boats to go around glacial barriers. Evidence of
coastal migration comes from caves and bays along the coast of Alaska and
B.C. that date the Holocene period (which began about 10,000 years ago)
• Compare the lifestyles of the Algonquians and the Iroquoians.
– The Algonquians: Shield culture • Seminomadic.
• Some facets of their lifestyle
– Live in teepees
– The Iroquoians
• Sedentary. Live where soil is fertile.
• Some facets of their lifestyle
– Live in longhouses
– Move every 15 yrs to more fertile land
– The Huron Confederacy.
– The 5 Nations Iroquois Confederacy.
1. (pg 100) The Algonquians lived in portable lodges. Only sleeping took place in the
lodges. In the winter the tribe divided into small bands that went to their own hunting
locations. They hunted deer, bear, caribou, and moose. Once spring came back, they
would combine back into their tribes along water such as the ocean, rivers and lakes.
During the spring and other warmer seasons they fished, gathered fruit/nuts, and hunted
small game (rabbits, birds, porcupines). They traded furs, copper, and stone with the
Iroquoian farmers to the south for food.
2. (pg 104) The Iroquoian peoples lived in the St. Lawrence Valley. They lived in long
houses with about five related families in small villages. The Iroquoian’s were farmers.
They began by farming maize. Because they did not use fertilizers or crop rotation, they
had to move their villages every ten to fifteen years. They use to be hunter and gatherer’s
but once became farmers there was a population boom. The women had a very important
part in their community. Women grew the crops, collected fruits, prepared meals, made
clothes, pottery, and baskets. They also took care of the children. The men were not as
present as they were gone fishing, fighting, hunting, clearing land or trading, most of the
• Four factors that contributed to the start of the explorations.
– The fall of Constantinople: Constantinople was an important trading city. When
it fell, it cut off commercial land routes between Europe of Asia. Western Europe
was forced to look to the sea instead for commerce, leading to the age of
– The quest for gold.
– Scientific discoveries (technology, compass, astrolab, square/triangle sails).
– Imperial ambitions. Expanding land and power. More resources.
• Dona Marina- (pg 136) Born about 1500 to a noble family in central Mexico. She spoke
Nahuatl, the mother tongue of the Aztec. Was sent to Mexican coast as a slave when young. She
was later passed on the people of the Yucatan peninsula where she became fluent in Maya.
Hernan Cortez arrived on the Mexican coast in 1519. Was a translator for Cortez to help invade
the Aztecs. Helped him by warning him of danger and could spy on other colonies. Without
Dona Marina, Cortes and his small Spanish army would have not been able to survive until the
Aztec capital. • Three main factors facilitating colonization
1) Technology- weapons (guns, swords, cannons), sails, horses, compasses.
2) disease- smallpox spread and weakened the population
3) Internal division among indigenous peoples
• The Taino (pg. 138)-they were the indigenous people of the Caribbean. Got to the Caribbean by
sailing in canoes from the Orinoco River Valley in South America. Had settled by 900 C.E. They
had sailed from South American to the Caribbean. They lived in small villages under the
authority of chiefs. Originally grew manioc and other crops. Live in small villages. Showed little
resistance to visitors. Mined gold for Spanish. Were encouraged to convert to Christianity. The
Taino’s were poorly treated. They died from disease, small pox. Once the Taino died out they
had to import African Slaves to harvest crops.
• Jacques Cartier (pg. 17, Dickenson)-Was commissioned to find passage in the North to find a
short route to the Spice Islands of Southeat Asia. Discovered a straight. French explorer who
charted the gulf and shores of the St. Lawrence Valley and who claimed “Canada” for France.
The settlements founded by Cartier in 1541-43 failed because they lacked an economic
foundation because the natives were hostile to them. Set up cross on Mt. Royal
• The Fishing Trade at the time of New France. (pg 14, Dickinson) Most profitable thing was
Cod because Cod was very big part of European diet.
Green-clean and salted on the ship, Ships engaged in this fishery landed only briefly in
Newfoundland and on the continent to replenish water and firewood supplies. With its huge salt
requirements, the green fishery was dominated by ports in south-western France, where salt was
cheap and plentiful. Worth less on European markets than dry fishery.
Dry- Fishermen established coastal bases from which they fished the inshore waters in small
boats. They brought the cod ashore, cleaned and laid it out to dry. It was more labor intensive but
produced a higher quality and higher priced cod. Livers were saved for cod oil which was used
for lubricant and lamp fuel.
•Samuel de Champlain. (pg. 18 of Dickenson)-Considered the “Father of New France” and
Quebec city. Champlain helped establish the first permanent French settlement in the Americas.
Established a fort and warehouse at Quebec in 1608. Formed relationships with