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Midterm Definitions

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McGill University
Elementary Education
EDEE 280
Paul Zanazanian

Term Information WHO: Parker; National Council for Geographic Education; Association of American Geographers  movement  humans interacting on earth o humans live in different areas (farms, cities) but they still interact through travel, communication, products  regions  how they form and change o landscapes, landforms MR. HELP  human-environment interaction o everywhere on earth has + and – for human settlement in that area  location  position on earth’s surface o absolute & relative location describe people & places  place  physical & human characteristics o places have specific characteristics that make them different than others WHO: Krug  selection of a subject for investigation o inquiry/investigation of what others can written as to not duplicate effort  collection of materials o what and where?  verification of sources o external criticism  authenticity of the source, is it reliable? o internal criticism  historical reliability  extraction & organization of data o centering it all in 5 Steps of the  writing of findings Historical o creating a plausible narrative, while taking the limits of available Method evidence and one’s subjectivity into account Limits of the Historical Method  evidence hard to come by  available evidence can be poor  few hard facts  complexity behind understanding past reality  complexity behind understanding historical actors WHEN: 1967 WHY: to have the most accurate representation of what happened; make sense of time & give meaning to oneself/family/community/society/world WHO: paleoanthropologists & archeologists believe about Natives WHAT: theories of migration of Aboriginals to Canada 2 Main  via Beringia  over a land bridge Theories of o 2 km wide connecting NA & Asia Aboriginal o migrated from Asia (Siberia) down into the south Migration to o followed game over the land bridge NA o at the end of the last ice age (12 000 years ago)  via the sea  leap-frogging down the Pacific coast o at Monte Verde in southern Chile, evidence of tool making, rock painting & house building predates opening of ice-free interior o used boats to go down Pacific coast to go around glacial barriers o caves & bays along coasts of Alaska & BC dates settlement/contact earlier than inland  linguistic evidence shows at least 2 subsequent migrations WHY: have different evidence suggesting different theories WHERE: Asia to North America HOW: land bridge vs. boats WHO: 2 main tribes  Algonquians & Iroquois WHAT: lifestyles  The Algonquians o seminomadic o occupied between 8000 and 4000 BCE o Canadian Shield  came from the west o dependent upon caribou so moved a lot o lived in Wig Whams o had technology to support life (tools) o affected by seasonal cycle  split into groups in winter, big group in summer o warfare not important, but would be carried out in summer o technology = utilitarian  transportation vital so canoes, moccasins, robes, snowshoes, toboggans superior; few utensils made from stones & bones o lodges easy to dismantle, transport & reconstruct; fire in centre for cooking & heat; used only for sleeping or shelter on bad weather days o people socialized primarily in summer when everyone together o political discussions concerned external relations o poor soils & show growing season so didn’t rely on crops (grew corn Algonquians vs. & squash in summer camps) Iroquoians o traded fur, copper & stone with Iroquoian farmers for food  The Iroquoians o sedentary o occupied shortly after glaciers retreated 11 000 years ago o southern parts of Canadian Shield & St. Lawrence region down into New York state o confederacies  tribes would get together to form confederacies o palisaded villages joined by networks of trails; longhouses for several related families to sleep, eat, play, work o occupied same place for 15 years of until firework/soil exhausted o followed seasonal pattern by horticulture freed them from winter survival crises o men went on fishing expeditions for months at a time o people socialized & practised crafts primarily in winter when everyone together o tools better than seminomadics o families patriarchal for hunting, but matriarchal for horticulture o political organization more important  had civil chief & war chief; chiefs from each village would occasionally meet to discuss matters o warfare strengthened community solidarity by focusing aggression on outside party o climate stabilized so had deer, elk, same, fish, nuts, berries o participated in extensive trading network o ceremonial burring based on idea of afterlife o maize first plant cultivated o introduction of agriculture meant increase in population, change in settlement pattern, altered social organization & belief  fall of Constantinople  quest for gold 4 Factors o Hernan Cortes Contributing to o needed gold to sustain economy Start of  scientific discoveries (technology) Exploration o compass, sails, astrolabe, follow the winds  imperial ambitions o royalty sponsored explorations to obtain rides  born 1500  sent to the Mexican coast as a slave  spoke Aztec & Mayan language  Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexican coast 1519 but had no way to communicate  had sailor who spoke Mayan language who communicated to Dona Marina for Cortes  provided intelligence, diplomatic & linguistic services Dona Marina  alerted Cortes of proposed attacks by natives  many thought she was a traitor but since she demonstrated bravery, intelligence & survival skills and gained symbolic richness, she is seen as the “Mother” of Mexico  helped facilitate Spanish conquest of Aztec empire & played role in formation of new society in Mexico  had a son with Cortes in 1522 & a daughter with a captain she married in 1526  Dona died ~1527  technology  weapons (swords, muskets, horses, sails) 3 Main Factors  diseases  smallpox Facilitating  internal divisions among indigenous peoples  divide & conquer Colonization o intra = within tribe o inter = tribe vs. tribe  first site of interaction between Europeans & American in the Caribbean  when Spanish mariners arrived, Taino more prominent people in the region  sailed in canoes from Orinoco River valley in SA to Caribbean islands  by 900 CE had settled throughout region  cultivated manioc & other crops  lived in small villages under authority of chiefs who allocated land to families & supervised community affairs Taino  worked in fields & mines  showed interest in glass/beads/metal tools Spanish brought for trade  couldn’t resist against Spanish especially with diseases  became miners and slaves for the Spanish to support their settlements  social disruption & physical abuse declined populations of Taino  only a few cultural elements (words) survived: canoe, hammock, hurricane, barbeque, maize & tobacco  annihilated due to European colonization in NA  French explorer who charted the gulf & shores of the St. Lawrence river & wst claimed ”Canada” for France  1 official expedition in the name of France o discovered Newfoundland was an island o discovered PEI Jacques Cartier o followed Nova Scotia coastline (1491-1557)  kidnaps chief’s 2 sons & takes them to France to prove he found people o brought them back on his 2 trip o chief angry with him  sails down river & posts cross on Mt. Royal (still there)  kidnaps 2 boys again with chief this time & 8 others  chief dies  goes back 3 time to set up colonies  only just survives winter  found fool’s gold  laughed at at home because he was convinced it was real  Europeans came off coast of NFLD & started setting up bases  came into contact with FN  fishermen from western Europe rushed to exploit cod fisheries in Newfoundland  most important transatlantic commerce Fishing Trade in  green fishery  cod cleaned & salted on board; ships landed briefly in NL to New France replenish water & wood supplies; dominated by ports in France where salt cheap; worth less; made 2 transatlantic trips/year  dry fishery  coastal bases; fisherman dished inshore waters in small boats; brought fish to land to clean; more labour intensive; higher quality, higher priced cod
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