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English (Arts)
ENGL 230
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What is theatre in times and places Theatre in 20th century Canada has not always been the definition of theatre Theatre is a way of expressing human story and what it is to be human A life art that happens within a certain period of time while an audience is in that same time and space Theatre can call out for change and move people out of their waysoPolitical purpose Art reflects the social conditions that make up our everyday lives Certain theatre encourages us to connect and relate to the characters whereas others want us to keep a distance and focus on the choices the characters are making Theatre has an entertainment purpose Theatre can reflect the world in which we live on the worlds own terms oA picture of our reality Dramatic Literature Approach oStudying the play without a cultural or social approach oWhat makes drama drama as a genre Drama is a space of difference oAristotle defines drama in counter point with lyric and epic voicesLyric voice is the expression of the state of a soula state of being Its an I voicean individualized voiceExpression of the state of a private soulAn Epic is beowulf A narration of a collective human endeavor Its recounted in the We voicecollective Events are retoldthe disposition of the telling Epics often have a narrator which is distanced and unimplicated by the actionunaffected Narrator is unchanged by the events Dramatic is they Drama will set up a 3rd person relationship between the stage and the audience or reader Imitation of an actionrepresent the action On stage and in the audience we experience these representations as real and present because they are unfolding before us in real timeleads to a central tension of drama in theatre and form Understand the characters as They They are distinctivenot I and not We We witness these events unfolding in real time which gives us a sense that we are implicated and affected by what we see on stage Trifles is a conflict between a dramatic perspective and an epic perspective oEvents are effecting and evolving oMale characters as the epic and the female characters as dramatic Women feel implicated in the eventsoDramatic attitude that is empathetic and emotional or affective o Women solve the mystery because they are affected but men will never solve the mystery because the women dissolve the evidence oDrama establishes a thirdperson relationship between characters and audience Mrs Hale is from the community Mrs Peters is new to town Different historiesboth have children but Mrs Peters has lost a child Mrs Peters is more assertive and is depicted physically as slight and minimizes herself through her personality Drama makes it clear to us that we are in a 3rd person relationship with it Within this dramatic voice this 3rd person relationship is reachable We can live through these dramatic events without living them but through the emotional experience oThe world of the play is established as distinct from ours Internal logic on how the play will run and how action will unfold Friends ran for so long and was comforting and funny because of its predictabilitythere were rules or conventions that held that universe together Always get the couch Nice apartments but dont really work Conventions in Trifles that holds that universe together Women must stay out of the way Expected to maintain the house a certain way oFire going Towel roller clean Bread in breadbox Social conventions are maintained loyally but are undermined by the dramatic convention oIn terms of realism the dramatic convention is that everything you need for the mystery of the drama to be solved is already on stage oWe have all the clues we leave but the men keep leaving the space that would tell them everything o We know that the women are going to find it because they stay on stage Women stick togethercommon role in society Exposition at the beginning introductory presentation of the setting and the charactersthe elaboration of the dramatic universe that we will enter intohelp us orient us into the world that we will be introduced to In trifles we see the exposition through the setting of the stage and costumescold and gloomyWhere the characters are placed on the stagemen are warm by the stove women are cold oMr Hale in his exposition recounts the events which make the playanepic moment of expositionhe is narrating Drama creates new worlds imaginative worlds wholesale and solely out of the components of the old one oSpeaks to the tension of theatre as both a space of identity and conventions The rocking chair in trifles is a rocking chairthe same rocking chair that might have been backstage but it is different because in theatre and drama a chair is never just a chairthe rocking chair is also the chair that Minnie sat in after she committed the murderit is creepyit acts as a stand in for Minniedont want to be closely associated with that the chair is at once a rocking chair yet it is also Minnie Drama has a vampiric aspect by sucking things out of the real world and placed into the dramatic worldHumans are on stage as humans but also as characters oDrama also does this in how it uses time and space Aristotle said drama is the imitation of an action of a certain magnitude and wholenessit doesnt just take any actions and recount them and label them as dramaDrama creates a sense of magnitude and wholeness in the way that drama tries to sculpt time and space Aristotle also states that drama has a clear beginning middle and endBeginning of a play evolves like a mysteryeverything is a clue that we must put togetherby the middle of a play characters have become reliablethe rules of this world are established Mrs Hale is going to empathize with Minnie and the women will hold backThe end is a sense of endness and inevitabilitycharacters acting in themselves pushed the climax to the highest point and then the problem resolves itselfgives time and drama a certain magnitude and wholenessMimesisimitation Mimesis is the imitation of an action and presents it as if it was real and present Drama drafts elements from our shared common world like chairs lights aprons etc in order to craft its own distinct universe where these objects will take on a second significance Identity lies in the fact that the chair is the same thing on stage as it is in life The difference lies in the fact that a chair is never just a chair while its on stage In the York Crucifixion the central human body is that of Jesus but it is treated in a peculiarly object fashion He speaks only twice which makes him an almost nonspeaking object His body is talked about in its specific materiality and also in its partswhos going to take the head and the hands and the feet while they attach the body to the cross and also when they put the cross up Jesus is depicted in his full humanitynaked tortured bleeding The duality of Christs body for medieval Christians is shown in the play Christ according to the doctrine is both fully human but also full divinity The wafer is both the piece of bread and the body of Christo1218 onwards the bread is the Christ The feast of Corpus Christi is the reason for the York CrucifixionThe ingestion of the wafer formed the central part of the catholic mass The host in that moment is raised up before the congregation above the priests head In that moment the congregation are said to be transported to Cavalry where Christ diedIt is the ingestion of the Eucharist where one becomes a full member of the community and body of ChristChrists body was understood to be an emblem of wholeness Christ in his double aspect is another model of wholeness The display of the Eucharist in the mass is carried over to a cultural aspect
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