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Cultural Studies Midterm Review .docx

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English (Arts)
ENGL 275
Brian Lewis

MARX Marx‟s Theory of History  the history of class struggle is the engine of history because the forces of economic production have been what triggers the chances in epoch of history  when he says class struggle, he means more as a category of work (what is the slot you occupy at work; do you own the stuff you work on/with or are you told what to do)  history is the continual dialect of opposing class struggles Material Forces of Production (industry, farming etc) + Relations of Production (where you are within the social working class) = the Mode of Production (The “Real Foundation”) Marx and Engels believed that the material world above all influences our thoughts, which then leads to our actions. Ideology Definition #1: false consciousness (just keeps re-enforcing the ruling class) Ideology Definition #2: terrain of struggle When Marx used ideology, he refers to ideas and representations of the world. Ideology = culture; the ways society is formed. ________________________________________________________ FREUD -the return of the repressed: Freudian slips “as a homogenous personality, we will not admit to ourselves certain things”  repressed or subconscious knowledge Steps in a Dream: 1) Latent Content (repressed thoughts and desires) 2) Dream Work 3) Manifest Content (the stuff that appears in a dream) Condensation  “latent elements which have something in common… combined and fused into a single unity in the manifest dream”  that person looks like my cousin, but sounds like my mom, and dresses like my dog etc.  allows the dream to represent many things at once Displacement:  “ a latent element is replaced… by something more remote… an allusion” or “the physical accent is shifted from an important element on to another which is unimportant”  sometimes somebody else in the dream will be living/expressing your desires or you will be expressing your desires/emotions on an object that is typical and unimportant to you. Secondary Revision:  “to make something whole and more or less coherent out of the first products of the dream-work”  when your going through the dream, it makes sense at the time. but in the morning when you try to explain it, it makes no sense The Oedipal complex  incest taboo Id – unconscious desires Ego – conscious self Superego – internalized voice of authority (especially paternal) __________________________________________________ SASSURE Saussure‟s Linguistic Model  a word gets its meaning by how it correlated to the world o a word is a sign that has two components: the signifier and the signified  signifier – acoustic image (the word you say, or how you write it down on paper T-R-E-E)  signified – concept (the actual tree) __________________________________________________ BARTHES Bathes Cultural Model:  mythological signification = form (cultural signifier) concept (myth as signified) Key Points: -the connection feels automatic (signifier and signified) -the connection is not natural (it doesn‟t necessarily have to be that signifier) __________________________________________________ FOUCAULT Discourses  the scientific, rational enlightenment meant an explosion in these kinds of discourses  not the same world, different terms. instead these new terms, signifiers etc end up creating the world as much as they describe it  we think of ourselves today as having a sexual identity (homosexual/heterosexual etc) Sexuality  the idea of personal sexuality is a modern idea that was made up in large part due to the discourses of the enlightenment  before they were just sexual “acts” “Repressive Hypothesis”
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