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ENVB 210- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 42 pages long!)


Department
Environmental Biology
Course Code
ENVB 210
Professor
Caroline B Begg
Study Guide
Midterm

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McGill
ENVB 210
Midterm EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
Ecosystem services services provided by an ecosystem. They are essential and regulated by the ecosystem.
We (humans) do not pay for it.
The services provided by soil include:
- Recycling nutrients / organic material
- Provide haitat fo plats/ othe ogaiss
- “euestate ao  ao sik + soue of ao CO2 gas exchange
- Purify/store water (+ Flood regulator): muck soils can hold 800x their weight in water
- Regulate heat
- Physical support for human structures
Soils are a living body: they can evolve, degrade.
Alog the ajo ies…
Swamp lands have been cultivated or lost most Rivers have waterfront property
- Roads
- Shopping malls
- Lawns
The ate ould’t ifiltate the soil FLOOD. ( the more rain that infiltrates the soil the less runoff )
The effects of the geological processes we had before in North America define the landscapes we have NOW.
Some of the geological processes:
- Glaciers (Ice age)
- Plates movement
- Rivers (deposition + erosion)
- Mountains: igneous intrusions ( Montroyal: magma pool underground )
- After Glaciers retreat Champlain Sea ( deposition of clay )
The combination soil-platform-climate specific vegetation pattern
Weathering physical disintegration and chemical decomposition of rocks
1) Physical disintegration
The material (rocks / stones) become smaller
Exfoliation: bedrock rises to the surface (erosion of surrounding material). The decrease of the
pressure when exposed to the surface the bedrock starts to peel / separate.
water comes in the cracks + freeze further disintegration.
2) Biochemical decomposition
The composition of the materials change
Increase of surface area = faster biochemical weathering
Acid rain/ low pH solution dissolves rocks
(also, roots/lichen release organic acids)
The PARENT MATERIAL the source of soils
- Different types of P.M different types of soils
(environment/plants/microbes also influence the type of soil)
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examples
- Bedrock (sedimentation, igneous, granite)
- Alluvial deposition (rivers)
- Clay, sand or silt
Glacial till: accumulation of unstratified mixtures.
When the glaciers left isostatic rebound
ISOSTATIC REBOUND
1) Massive weight + elastic lithosphere
2) Lithosphere depression
3) Rebounded following ice sheet decay
Geological events in southern Quebec/ Ontario
- GREENVILLE PROVINCE: metamorphic rocks
- St Lawrence platform : limestone beds of mud, fossils and sand ( 500Million years ago)
- Igneous intrusions ( magma that cooled slowly underground) formed Mount-Royal, Mount Saint-
Hilaire, Rougemont, Mout “t Buo, et…
- Glaciation : left behind a mix of stones, rocks, sand, etc Glacial till
- After the glaciers retreated : Atlantic Ocean moved in Champlain Sea. (marine clay sediments
deposited)
- After the isostatic rebound, the Champlain Sea retreated, rivers formed The running river water
caused total or partial erosion of the marine clay.
The transition zone between two ecosystems is the most complex and biodiverse one.
Tropical soils are classified as old ones.
REGOLITH
Layer of unconsolidated materials overlaying the hard, un-weathered bedrock.
Lower limit of soil: the depth to which soil weathering has been effective.
LEDA lay, soil foatio ad destutio
This lay (called like that because of its size) causes landslides.
Leda’s staility is idued y salt ate.
Afte the sea’s eteated, fesh ate ae i(precipitation), was deposited and stocked with Leda. Once
disturbed, it collapses landslides.
SOIL FORMATION: 5 soil formation factors
- Climate
- Parent material
- Organisms (above and below)
- Time
- Topography
The different layers of the sol profile are called HORIZONS.
The climate is what causes weathering on the soil.
The actions of climate + organisms on the p.m.,
modified by topography through time.
Effect of all these factors creation of a soil
profile ( vertical slice of soil showing)
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