FACC 100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Social Inequality, Appropriate Technology, Fidic

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25 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Engineering Professional Values
Professional values (“the 4 commandments”)
-Competence
Mastery of knowledge necessary for professional practice
Application of scientific principles and standards of good practice
Use of practical judgement
Respect for human element
Keep up with the latest developments in your field after graduation
Professional practice (facing routine challenges at work)
Attending conferences and seminars
Back to school to earn a Master’s or a Ph.D.
Retraining and/or professional development 7
-Responsibility
Engineers can only accept assignments for which they have the necessary
competence
Must assume full responsibility for consequences of professional actions
Are personally answerable to clients and to society for their work
-Social Commitment
Maintaining a high level of quality in professional practice
Respecting economic, social, political and ecological development
Promoting well-being of fellow citizens
-Ethical Conduct
Personal interest and profitability come second to interests of society and of clients
Dedication to integrity, availability, independence, professional discretion, and
solidarity with colleagues
Actions to be guided by professional conscience
Code of Ethics
An engineer’s obligations
3 main ‘stakeholders’
– Public
– Client or employer
– Engineering profession
Obligations to the public
Respect the well-being of fellow citizens as well as the environment
Inform or warn stakeholders (client, supervisor, employer, public) if engineering
work poses a risk or danger
Provide advice that is based on adequate knowledge and honest convictions
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Obligations to the client or employer
• Execute work only if competent
• Act with integrity
– False representations
– Clear and explicit instructions
– Inform of any errors
– Inform client of consequences if advice is not followed Bribes 贿赂
• Complete work with diligence
• Apply Engineer’s seal and signature
– Engineering designs and specifications
– Work performed by non-engineers (e.g., engineer-in-training)
• Ensure independence and no conflict of interest
Respect confidentiality保密
Obligations to the profession
• Harmful or derogatory acts
• Relationship with the Order and fellow engineers
Standards of Responsibility in Engineering
Malpractice Model
• Engineers must conform to standard operating procedures (SOP)
• Existing regulations tend to be minimalist
• Responsibility linked with legal liability
• Focus on blame and punishment
Reasonable Care Model
• Should exceed existing regulations if they are insufficient
• Meet the standard that a prudent nonprofessional would expect
Concern for public welfare instead of trying to avoid blame
• Responsibility as a civic virtue
• Focus on prevention of harm
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Good Works Model
• Going above and beyond the call of duty
• An engineer who does not meet this standard cannot be blamed or be considered
morally deficient
Often met with resistance
– Tight time schedules
– Limited budgets
– Other priorities
Philosophy and Principles of Ethics
Bernard Gert’s moral system
an informal public system applying to all rational persons, governing behavior that
affects others, and includes what are commonly known as the moral rules, ideals,
and virtues and has the lessening of evil or harm as its goal.
Bernard Gert’s 10 moral rules
• Do not kill
• Do not cause pain
• Do not disable i.e., do not harm
• Do not deprive of freedom
• Do not deprive of pleasure
• Do not deceive
• Keep your promises
• Do not cheat i.e., do not violate trust
• Obey the law
• Do your duty
4 classical ethical theories
Mills utilitarianism
• Provide the maximum benefit for the greatest number of people
• Legal system and democratic government based on these principles
Common approach used by engineers (ex.: cost-benefit analyses)
Difficulty lies in calculating maximum benefit
• 3 key factors:
– Intensity
– Duration
– Number
Equality of distribution of benefits
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