Food Chem Final Questions
Difference sorbate and benzoate explain
Sorbate, active in salt form, used to inhibit mold growth and benzoate, active in free acid form, used to
inhibit bacterial growth.
melted or frozen ice cream sweeter
Melted will taste sweeter since the cold from the frozen ice cream will numb taste buds and lessen the
differences between lactic acid and lactose and if there’s a relationship
Lactic acid is made from the fermentation of sucrose, potato starch, etc. and is doesn’t originate from dairy
products. Lactose is the sugar found in dairy products that breaks down into galactose and glucose. It is
the least sweet natural sweetener. Lactic acid is often found in fermented products as well as many dairy
purpose of using acidulants and applications 4 uses and examples(2 questions)
1. Enhance taste in desserts and confectionnaries. Subthresholds amount of sour compounds
decreases saltiness). Vinegar gives piquancy and aromatic flavors to pickles.
2. Inhibit enzymatic activity ex. Enzymatic browning
3. Inhibit microbial growth. Vinegar is used as a preservative for pickles.
4. Increase gelstrength in pectinbased jams and jellies
5. Activate antioxidant activity ex. Fumaric acid in mushrooms and rice products.
6. Used in processing of wine to have a stable product.
drinking cold water to relieve black pepper
The cold will numb the taste buds temporarily to cause relief. Water does not stay in the mouth very long
though so the relief will be short.
air and water do they both have the same affect and enzymatic browning
They do not. Water will temporarily inhibit enzymatic browning by restricting the amount of oxygen that
comes into contact with the food item. The barrier is not present in air therefore enzymatic browning will
proceed more quickly.
L or D amino acid sweeter (answer D)
Usually, D amino acids taste sweet and L amino acids taste bitter. There are some exceptions such as L
Ala which tastes sweet and DAla which tastes bitter.
2 examples of texturizers, waterbinding agent, emulsifying, foaming agents
Texturizers: thickener/thixotropic agents (gums, pectin, starch, sugars, whey protein, CMC), and emulsifying
agents (monodiglycerides, mustard powder and lecithin).
WaterBinding agents: Humectants (phosphates, polyphosphates, glycerol), anticaking agents (silicates,
cornstarch) Emulsifying agents: mono and diglycerides, mustard powder, lecithin
Foaming agents: egg whites, milk powder
2 amino acids in alitame
Aspartate and alanine
triangle test: panel how to chose from each corner
False. You Have 3 products. Two are identical. Pick the odd one out.
explain difference and preference tests
Preference tests are useful for the development of new products. Subjects are asked to choose the product
that they prefer due to the overall taste. Tests include paired comparison, hedonic test and ranking.
Difference tests are used to identify differences between products. One can identify certain attributes to a
food and see if an improvement should be made. The sensory quality can be assessed. These test
include simple paired comparison, scheffe paired comparison, ranking, multiple comparison, due trio, and
Why would you chose synthetic over natural components
Natural colors do not give as vibrant of a color, it is more susceptible to changes in heat and light so the
color can vary, can add flavor to food since more must be used and is much more expensive.
glucose vs fructose why is fructose sweeter
Fructose is sweeter due to its 5 membered ring, vs the 6 membered ring of glucose.
difference between high fructose corn syrup and corn syrup
In high fructose corn syrup glucose isomerase is added to regular corn syrup in order to convert glucose in
fructose. Since fructose has a higher relative sweetness than glucose, the final product, in the same
amounts, is sweeter than corn syrup.
3 things bitter tasting: xylitol, naringin, .. (false)
False: alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, quinine), glycosides (naringin, coniferin, sinigrin, hesperidin), and
certain amino acids.
What imparts sour sensation
What is ADI
Acceptable Daily Intake. It is the highest amount of a compound (weight/kg of body weight) that has not
caused any harmful effects in the experiment animal divided by 100.
How do we perceive taste
Taste perception comes from the tongue and the nose and is interpreted by the brain to result in the overall
sensation. Taste, mouthfeel and odor/olfaction play a role.
3 groups of food additives Food Colors, Incidental (pesticides, PCBs, asbestos, etc.), Intentional
(Processing aids, quality enhancers and preservatives)
what is sweetness equivalent Sweetness comparison with sucrose (given value of 1)
MSG and mannitol are they flavour enhancers (answer: only MSG) 2 factors that affect mouthfeel (or necessary for) tactile sensation (astringency, texture, consistency),
temperature and pain
sour taste: tartiric, sorbic and citric (T or F) are organic not inorganic
3 characteristic of flavor taste, odor, mouthfeel
bitter components: altoce
do quinines impart a bitter taste T
hedonic scale is it part of the ranking test F
3 purpose for adding food colorants
∙ offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage
∙ correct natural variations in color
∙ enhance colors that occur naturally
∙ provide color to colorless and "fun" foods
what makes something sour H+ ions
what makes a molecule sweet electronegative N and O
accepting and using food colorants
thiobriomine and bitter taste
It is an alkaloid that is structurally similar to caffeine and often found with caffeine in certain plants such as
selection of sweetners: carcicogenicity, solubility, heat of solution, hygorscopicity
Cariogenicity Plaqueformation. Food fermented by Strep. Mutans pyruvate>formic, acetic or lactic acid
which erodes tooth enamel. Polyols are not fermented by these bacteria and therefore do not cause
Hygroscopicity: Water uptake ability. High values= soggy product and harder to preserve.
Solubility: Solubility should ideally be similar to that of sugar. Changes in solubility can have an impact on
onset of sweetness sensation, duration of sensation and mouthfeel. Heat of Solution: Heat reabsorption. If is low there is a cooling effect. This effect is found in polyols which
is desired for certain products such as mints, lozenges, tablets, etc.
Sweetness equivalent: Alternative sweetener should be sweeter or isosweet to sucrose. Sucrose is given a
value of 1 in relative sweetness in order to compare it to other sugars.
Criteria for Food additives Must be to consumer’s advantage, must not deceive consumer, and must be safe
to use continuo