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GEOG 311
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Lecture 11A firstcut critique of NIS 1 Overemphasis of IO relations ie traded interdependencies2 Different types of industrial complexes3 Limited to localitiesindustries which have been successful4 Too much focus on SMEs5 Zerosum natureEmergence of a New Economic Geography Krugman Krugmans Explanation of Industrial Agglomerations Two faces on Krugmans NEGRegional specialization result of accidents of historyRegional agglomerations sustained by external economies of scale depend on size of market Key factors going back to Marshalli Creation of specialist suppliers ie inputoutput efficienciesii Labour market pooling Little attention paid to technological spillovers too difficult to modelOn the importance of technological changeYet TC increasingly seen as primary determinant of long term economic growth o Solow 1956 Romer 1986 Lucas 1988Explanations of differences in national regional economic growth patterns now focus on innovative capacity of firms and the nation region o Ie transactional and institutional framework of conventions and relations in which firms and workers are embedded o Regional specific knowledge and institutional settingWhat forces drive TC o In capitalism firms compete for profits uncertainty and incapacity to control markets is impetus for technological changeGeneral definition of technology the social pool of knowledge of the industrial arts SchmooklerTechnological process expansion of this pool of information and TC occurs when agents use new parts of this knowledge poolTC governed by o 1 Production of knowledge invention and learning o 2 How it is applied to the economy innovation o 3 How it spreads or diffuses imitation throughout the economyThese 3 processes operate at a firm level For an industry or region TC is produced through selection entrance of new firms and exit of older firms governed by competition Regions are composed of various economic actors embedded within a set of institutionaland organizational structuresRegions are repositories of accumulated knowledge both codified and tacit which incorporate behaviroual conventions and relationsThese shape the way knowledge is produced and how learning takes place Pools of knowledge therefore differ over space Adding a new dimension focus on untraded interdependenciesMore to agglomeration dynamics than simply traded interdependencies is there really something in the airAgglomeration as source of industrial dynamism knowledge generated in and through agglomerations Thus importance of Storpers untraded interdependencies sets of conventions rules practices and institutions embedded in the social fabric of the region o Ie noneconomic social relations and structures embedded in regional growth o Highly reflexive ie human agencyCase study the British Motor Sport Industry BMSI All the hallmarks of a NISOver 75 of singleseat racing cars are Britishbuilt Formula One Indy Cars and Rally Cars50000 employees across mainly small and mediumsized SME firmsSMEs specialize in various aspects of parts production gearboxes brakes engines suspensionsVertically disintegrated flexible production industrial agglomeration Why Britain in the first placeIn care of BMSI important to tap into the locally embedded generation of knowledgeBMSIs origins postWWII much of the knowledge physical inputs and skilled workers required to design and build race cars derived from aerospace sectorHistorical accident Not reallyCultureEconomy NexusIncentives to agglomerate tap into thick and rapidly circulating flows of knowledge and technological innovationsLocal diffusion of innovations o Jobhoping designers engineers and technicians o As they move from one team to the next they bring with them considerable knowledge of how things are done with rival teamsFactors behind knowledge dissemination Industrial spying and McLaren
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