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Final

HIST 215 Study Guide - Final Guide: Second Industrial Revolution, Russian Civil War, English Civil War

32 pages48 viewsWinter 2014

Department
History
Course Code
HIST 215
Professor
Anastassios Anastassiadis
Study Guide
Final

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Guiding questions
Week 2 (Sascha)
2.1. To what extent were religious divisions the underlying cause of the English Civil
War and the Glorious Revolution, as opposed to constitutional issues?
Conflicts between the stuart kings and parliament, in which religious conflict played an
important role, led to the english civil war. Monarchy tried to enhance its authority by
imposing taxes without consent of parliament (english throne in financial crisis). The
anglican church faced challenges from the puritans (dissident religious group of
calvinists). (common theme in european hist at this time--religious conflicts)- opposed
role of bishops in church of england, emphasized personal worth of individual. Political
crisis led to constitutional conflict over how England should be governed (parliament
largely led by puritans). Country (parliament defenders) vs. Court (monarchy defenders).
english civil war (1630s-1640s) has been known as “puritan revolution” even though they
were not the only ones fighting. (reminiscent of spanish inquisition--people on trial for
offenses against church of england.) … later in 1688: glorious revolution---same type of
religious conflict after Stuart monarch came back, again with provocative policies
(catholic sympathies)--ended with bill of rights in 1689 and toleration act.
Civil war: religious issue (wanted to bring back catholicism) but puritans went against
this. Political crisis, cause the king wanted to do wtv without going through parliament,...
so there was a split btm the parliament and state.
Glorious revolution: Change with no blood. Now the power couldn’t do anything without
the government.
2.2. What are the key features of an absolutist state? Compare and contrast the
different absolutist monarchies during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth
centuries. What were the major effects of this method of governance on the European
political landscape? **
Absolute control over political and social realms, king is seen as divinely chosen (French
monarch: once given authority, God doesn’t matter), representations (symbols of power/
propaganda) of the monarch through painting, statues, etc., as being superior
(represented, but not present, often in court away from city/population)(Court society).
People promoted the kings status such as Hobbes. Idea of space, such as palaces, gardens
etc..
French vs English (but not an absolutist state so maybe use russia instead)
Controlled vs seemingly free (ex: gardens, representing different types of absolute state)
Divinely appointed vs parliamentary monarchy (in both cases monarchies held all
power).
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French vs. Russia: (under peter the great) expanded russian territory westward, wanted to
incorporate more western europe ideas (admired them) and emulate them. Had advisors,
got them drunk so he didn’t have to listen to them.
-used military might to maintain absolute power
Effects: quest of absolute rulers to add to their territories, growing global commercial
rivalry between great powers increasingly shaped european warfare.-- idea of balance of
power (no monarchy should become too powerful)--threatened by power of louis the
14th. ultimately led to the idea of the modern nation state, developed state bureaucracies
and est. large standing armies. needed relationship between rulers and nobles to maintain
order.
-also affected the subjects in these states: through taxation, military service, and religious
orthodoxy imposed by state.
2.3. What were the economic changes that took place during the late seventeenth
century? Look in particular at the Dutch, French and English examples. How did
these changes impact global trade and empire?
Leads to atlantic slave trade? wanting to expand on land and economy. Dutch france and
england were the key countries in the atlantic slave trade.
Dutch
-developed more rapidly than England and France during the first of the 17th C
-affluence increased because of foreign trade
-Amsterdam public Bank opened offices in town hall
-main function was to encourage merchants to make payments in bills drawn on the bank
to facilitate foreign trade
-increase in agricultural = surplus which was invested in commerce or manufacturing
-decline of Dutch republic because England and France had more economic resources
and population
-Rivals imposed tariffs - kept the Dutch products out
England
-protectionist policies
France
-mercantilism (controller-general: jean-baptiste colbert): all resources should be put into
the service of the state and that a state’s wealth was measured by its ability to import
more gold and silver than it exported. emphasized economic self-sufficiency. founded
commercial trading companies , king granted monopolies on colonial trading
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-Now had colonial economies to rely on as well, helped to globalize economies (needed
protectionist strategies to protect themselves.)
2.4. How was society divided during the early-eighteenth century? What were the
attributes of each social order?
Clergy:
Regular: High clergy: lived monastic lives (away from society) example: Abbots.
Low Clergy: monks and nuns.
No crossing from high to low
Secular: High clergy: Bishops, lived in society
Low clergy: Priests and vicars.
Between low clergy you can move from regular and secular.
Nobility
1% of population, owned 40-50% of the land.
Ancient(sword): High nobility:
Provincial nobility: privilege of nobility was “not working”, so some
provincial nobility were so poor that they had to give up their title to work. However
once they earn enough money, they can regain their title.
(Mike C)
-Nobility: controlled large amount of land (key characteristic). High nobility had huge
amounts of land, very wealthy and powerful. Provincial Nobility Sometimes only owned
their castle and the immediate surrounding land. Main privilege of nobles: Not having to
work. Some provincial nobles were so poor though that they had to work, and were
forced to write to the king to ask to be temporarily dispensed from being a noble, for
around a year, so that they could work and improve their finances. Then get back their
status and privileges after this time.
-high nobility: wanted their children to be in the military, then if not the clergy (2nd son).
Men*
-for daughters, u tried to marry them off-generally marrying them for economic or
political gain, or making powerful ties to other bigger/wealthier families, such as higher
status etc.
-The nobles controlled 15-20% of the land in their countries, the only ones allowed to
hunt, carry arms, they had servants, etc.
Recent(Robe): Financiers:
Office holders:
3rd estate:
Tax payers, non-privilege, country side was better than town living.
Urban: High bourg: can move to the recent nobility by marrying their daughters.
Merchants, masters and shop keepers:
Guildsmen, servants, beggars, vagabonds: can’t move up to high bourg and
merchants, etc
Rural: rich land holders,
craftsmen, labors, beggars, vagabonds: can’t move up
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