-Now had colonial economies to rely on as well, helped to globalize economies (needed
protectionist strategies to protect themselves.)
2.4. How was society divided during the early-eighteenth century? What were the
attributes of each social order?
Regular: High clergy: lived monastic lives (away from society) example: Abbots.
Low Clergy: monks and nuns.
No crossing from high to low
Secular: High clergy: Bishops, lived in society
Low clergy: Priests and vicars.
Between low clergy you can move from regular and secular.
1% of population, owned 40-50% of the land.
Ancient(sword): High nobility:
Provincial nobility: privilege of nobility was “not working”, so some
provincial nobility were so poor that they had to give up their title to work. However
once they earn enough money, they can regain their title.
-Nobility: controlled large amount of land (key characteristic). High nobility had huge
amounts of land, very wealthy and powerful. Provincial Nobility Sometimes only owned
their castle and the immediate surrounding land. Main privilege of nobles: Not having to
work. Some provincial nobles were so poor though that they had to work, and were
forced to write to the king to ask to be temporarily dispensed from being a noble, for
around a year, so that they could work and improve their finances. Then get back their
status and privileges after this time.
-high nobility: wanted their children to be in the military, then if not the clergy (2nd son).
-for daughters, u tried to marry them off-generally marrying them for economic or
political gain, or making powerful ties to other bigger/wealthier families, such as higher
-The nobles controlled 15-20% of the land in their countries, the only ones allowed to
hunt, carry arms, they had servants, etc.
Tax payers, non-privilege, country side was better than town living.
Urban: High bourg: can move to the recent nobility by marrying their daughters.
Merchants, masters and shop keepers:
Guildsmen, servants, beggars, vagabonds: can’t move up to high bourg and
Rural: rich land holders,
craftsmen, labors, beggars, vagabonds: can’t move up