Week 2 (Sascha)
2.1. To what extent were religious divisions the underlying cause of the English Civil
War and the Glorious Revolution, as opposed to constitutional issues?
Conflicts between the stuart kings and parliament, in which religious conflict played an
important role, led to the english civil war. Monarchy tried to enhance its authority by
imposing taxes without consent of parliament (english throne in financial crisis). The
anglican church faced challenges from the puritans (dissident religious group of
calvinists). (common theme in european hist at this time--religious conflicts)- opposed
role of bishops in church of england, emphasized personal worth of individual. Political
crisis led to constitutional conflict over how England should be governed (parliament
largely led by puritans). Country (parliament defenders) vs. Court (monarchy defenders).
english civil war (1630s-1640s) has been known as “puritan revolution” even though they
were not the only ones fighting. (reminiscent of spanish inquisition--people on trial for
offenses against church of england.) … later in 1688: glorious revolution---same type of
religious conflict after Stuart monarch came back, again with provocative policies
(catholic sympathies)--ended with bill of rights in 1689 and toleration act.
Civil war: religious issue (wanted to bring back catholicism) but puritans went against
this. Political crisis, cause the king wanted to do wtv without going through parliament,...
so there was a split btm the parliament and state.
Glorious revolution: Change with no blood. Now the power couldn’t do anything without
2.2. What are the key features of an absolutist state? Compare and contrast the
different absolutist monarchies during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth
centuries. What were the major effects of this method of governance on the European
political landscape? **
Absolute control over political and social realms, king is seen as divinely chosen (French
monarch: once given authority, God doesn’t matter), representations (symbols of power/
propaganda) of the monarch through painting, statues, etc., as being superior
(represented, but not present, often in court away from city/population)(Court society).
People promoted the kings status such as Hobbes. Idea of space, such as palaces, gardens
French vs English (but not an absolutist state so maybe use russia instead)
Controlled vs seemingly free (ex: gardens, representing different types of absolute state)
Divinely appointed vs parliamentary monarchy (in both cases monarchies held all
power). French vs. Russia: (under peter the great) expanded russian territory westward, wanted to
incorporate more western europe ideas (admired them) and emulate them. Had advisors,
got them drunk so he didn’t have to listen to them.
-used military might to maintain absolute power
Effects: quest of absolute rulers to add to their territories, growing global commercial
rivalry between great powers increasingly shaped european warfare.-- idea of balance of
power (no monarchy should become too powerful)--threatened by power of louis the
14th. ultimately led to the idea of the modern nation state, developed state bureaucracies
and est. large standing armies. needed relationship between rulers and nobles to maintain
-also affected the subjects in these states: through taxation, military service, and religious
orthodoxy imposed by state.
2.3. What were the economic changes that took place during the late seventeenth
century? Look in particular at the Dutch, French and English examples. How did
these changes impact global trade and empire?
Leads to atlantic slave trade? wanting to expand on land and economy. Dutch france and
england were the key countries in the atlantic slave trade.
-developed more rapidly than England and France during the first ⅔ of the 17th C
-affluence increased because of foreign trade
-Amsterdam public Bank opened offices in town hall
-main function was to encourage merchants to make payments in bills drawn on the bank
to facilitate foreign trade
-increase in agricultural = surplus which was invested in commerce or manufacturing
-decline of Dutch republic because England and France had more economic resources
-Rivals imposed tariffs - kept the Dutch products out
-mercantilism (controller-general: jean-baptiste colbert): all resources should be put into
the service of the state and that a state’s wealth was measured by its ability to import
more gold and silver than it exported. emphasized economic self-sufficiency. founded
commercial trading companies , king granted monopolies on colonial trading -Now had colonial economies to rely on as well, helped to globalize economies (needed
protectionist strategies to protect themselves.)
2.4. How was society divided during the early-eighteenth century? What were the
attributes of each social order?
Regular: High clergy: lived monastic lives (away from society) example:Abbots.
Low Clergy: monks and nuns.
No crossing from high to low
Secular: High clergy: Bishops, lived in society
Low clergy: Priests and vicars.
Between low clergy you can move from regular and secular.
1% of population, owned 40-50% of the land.
Ancient(sword): High nobility:
Provincial nobility: privilege of nobility was “not working”, so some
provincial nobility were so poor that they had to give up their title to work. However
once they earn enough money, they can regain their title.
-Nobility: controlled large amount of land (key characteristic). High nobility had huge
amounts of land, very wealthy and powerful. Provincial Nobility Sometimes only owned
their castle and the immediate surrounding land. Main privilege of nobles: Not having to
work. Some provincial nobles were so poor though that they had to work, and were
forced to write to the king to ask to be temporarily dispensed from being a noble, for
around a year, so that they could work and improve their finances. Then get back their
status and privileges after this time.
-high nobility: wanted their children to be in the military, then if not the clergy (2 son).
-for daughters, u tried to marry them off-generally marrying them for economic or
political gain, or making powerful ties to other bigger/wealthier families, such as higher
-The nobles controlled 15-20% of the land in their countries, the only ones allowed to
hunt, carry arms, they had servants, etc.
Tax payers, non-privilege, country side was better than town living.
Urban: High bourg: can move to the recent nobility by marrying their daughters.
Merchants, masters and shop keepers:
Guildsmen, servants, beggars, vagabonds: can’t move up to high bourg and
Rural: rich land holders,
craftsmen, labors, beggars, vagabonds: can’t move up Week 3
3.1. What were three key ways that science departed from Aristotelian and Medieval
methods during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Pay particular attention to
astronomical and biological studies.
1. Aristotle was the first to use rational thought and the idea of analyzing premises to
defend an argument
2. Created the scientific method
3. Also introduced the theory of empiricism
1. Which is the idea that knowledge can only come from sensory experiences
(see, hear, touch, smell and taste)
2. This contradicted the Church
3.2. Compare and contrast deductive reasoning with the scientific method. What were
the religious implications of these new modes of thought?
Philosophers began to challenge Christianity and the church by experimenting and using
rational thought. The invention of the telescope and the experiments conducted by
Galileo and Ptolemy, for example, influenced the public and challenged the church. For
instance, the church proclaimed that the earth was at the center of the universe and
everything would rotate around the Earth, which Galileo then proved to be false. These
contradictions led people to stray away from religion and lean towards rationality and
science. Deductive reasoning is taking a premise and using it to conclude an answer.
3.3.What was the effect of the Scientific Revolution on Enlightenment thought? Check
Searched for rational truths, based on scientific evidence, bring scientific knowledge and
findings to the public (so ppl can think for themselves and make their own decisions).
Findings the contradicted strongly held prior beliefs and therefore questioned the old
order. Science literacy was seen as elite.
3.4. Identify the three stages of the Enlightenment and describe the significant
features of each one.
Not 100% sure, but:
- early: Started with early ideas from the philosophers challenging some of the most
commonly held ideas previously held by europeans, idea of being ruled by law, popular
sovereignty (influenced by scientific revolution)
- enlightenment expanded: enlightenment entered many spheres of life including
religious, cultural, political (rise of literacy). salons, academies, and masonic lodges were
places where individuals could gather and discuss ideas (still mostly for upper classes).
- late: began to expand to ideas about economy. started to move away from freedom
being exercise of reason → expression of emotions. rousseau: reasoned sentimentality. Emphasis on historical roots → national identities. the idea of public opinion began to
take shape during this time.
3.5. Identify one effect of Enlightenment thought for each one of the following
domains: politics, society, culture.
Politics: Politics and the government should be driven by rational thought instead of one
individual making all the rules. Rousseau stated, “People could not legitimately follow
laws that they themselves have made”. Therefore, a smaller version of democracy would
be best used for a state according to Rousseau.
Society: Rational thought and the rise of intelligence and knowledge are offered to any
individual of the society. The creation of the encyclopedia represents a time in life where
everyone had the ability to be informed and knowledgeable in order to have rational
thoughts. People would now meet in coffee houses where they can share knowledge with
each other and have the opportunity to be skeptical on certain issues due to the ability of
Culture: Sciences influenced art as well as entertainment. Projector like machines were
invented as a form of entertainment.Artwork transitioned to a more neo classical form
with renovated ideas compared to before where there were just large paintings with fewer
4.1 While Britain was entering the Industrial revolution in the second half of the 18
century, France was ready to go into another type of revolution. What were some
emerging differences between GB and France in terms of agricultural production?
Demographics? Organization of manufacturing?
Britain was blessed with coal and iron ore deposits located near water
transportation, which made it possible for raw materials to be transported to factories
with relative ease. But France’s coal deposits were less rich and more dispersed and were
far from iron ore deposits and canals. Thus transportation cost kept up the prices of raw
materials. Demand was also less in France than in Britain because the French population
rose by only 30% during the first half of the 19th century; in France the population
developed more slowly than that of Britain; small family farms remained characteristic.
High agricultural tariffs did not encourage agricultural efficiency in France. French
banking facilities remained relatively basic compared to those in Britain.
4.2. Identify six factors that contributed to the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution in Great Britain.
• Growing population, high immigrants, growth and stagnation in agriculture,
improved transportation, plenty available natural resources, new inventions
(example: spinning jenny) • Additional notes: With the increase of their populations came an increase in the
need for commodities; therefore an increase in textiles and foods. Great Britain’s
location allowed it to gain access to water power and river systems which allowed
for improved transportation methods (center of trading ports).
• They had access to natural resources such as iron, and coal. They had a large
labour supply ready to work in factories. Entrepreneurs (seen negatively in
mainland Europe) were investing in new factories.And of course, Britain’s
overseas colonies gave them a large market to supply to.
4.3. With population growth and the expansion of manufacturing in 18 -century
Britain, what measures did the rich take to keep the poor in check?
The working class worked extreme hours with very little breaks and no vacation time.
By restraining their leisure time the rich (example: factory owners) were, in a way,
controlling their actions. Since they were spending most of their hours at work they were
not able to go to bars or cause trouble. The rich also extracted peasant surplus, and
peasants owed what they produced to their landlords, the state, and the church. Nobles
also resisted attempts to reduce peasants’obligations. The creation of sports teams and
leagues also kept the working population controlled, less likely to drink etc.
4.4. What were five causes of the French Revolution? How do historians disagree
over their interpretation ?
Causes:An unfair taxation policy on the 3rd estate, an economic crisis (under huge debt
and famine), exploitive catholic church, an indecisive king, enlightenment ideas, and
Marxist historians: Describe the revolution as the inevitable result of a bourgeois
challenge to the Old Regime, dominated by nobles. They see it as the rise of the
bourgeoisie and its struggle for social and political influence corresponding with its rising
economic power during the eighteenth century. Soooo, they see it as a victory for the
Some historians have noted that difference between aristocrats and bourgeois had become
considerably blurred during the 18th century; that most of the “bourgeois” members of
the Estates-General were not drawn from commerce and manufacturing but rather from
law; and that, in any case, the upper middle class and nobles by the time of the
Revolution shared a common obsession with money, not privilege. Thus one can’t simply
say that the revolution was simply a victory for the bourgeoisie.
Arevisionist school has argued that a new political culture was already in place in the last
decades of the Old Regime.An extreme version of this interpretation sees the French
monarchy as a state which was on its way to reforming itself through the collaboration of
liberal nobles before the Revolution interrupted this process. Critical views of the “bourgeois revolution” have emphasized that within France the
complex nature of local political power which was divided among provincial estates and
parlements limited the actual privileges of absolute monarchy.
4.5. After the fall of the Bastille, what steps did the National Assembly take to
establish a new relationship between the former subjects (henceforth citizens) and
the King? What is their significance for the way politics will be understood
After the fall of the bastille, peasants attacked chateaux. In order to try to calm down the
peasants, the NationalAssembly abolished the feudal regime: owners of the seigneurial
dues or payments owed by peasants who worked land owned by nobles would receive
compensation from the peasants. The assembly abolished personal labor servitude
owed to nobles without compensations. They renounced privilege (which was the
fundamental organizing principle of French society). They guaranteed the freedom of
worship and the abolition of the sale of offices, seigneurial justice, and the right of
nobles to hunt. Provinces and cities were required to give up most of their old
privileges. With all this done, the National assembly ended what would soon be known
as the Old Regime.
Note: The assembly redefined the relationship between subjects and the king. No longer
would the king rule by divine right or by allegiance by dispensing privileges to favorites.
Instead, he would be constrained by a constitution. The assembly spread the Declaration
of the Rights of Man and Citizen which proposed universal principles of humanity.
4.6.What perceived threats to the Republic made the Jacobins in favor of Terror?
Ya, my answers are not very good for this question.. im having trouble finding much
detail about it!
Economic and political threats.
Foreign invasion and civil uprising.
They were afraid people would not support them and therefore lose power - used violence
and terror to get people to vote for them.
Anyone who proved to be skeptical of them was executed.
(On page 466 and 467 of the book it says “But he also believed that the popular
movement remained a threat to the orderly transformation of political life in france”...
what is the popular movement? )
Note: They prosecuted anyone considered disloyal to the republic (basically, if you
werent for them, you were against them).
5.1.What four measures did Napoleon take to bring stability and consolidate
power into his hands before finally declaring himself Emperor in 1804?
- Suppressed rebellions in france. -Napoleon became first consul and ended the feud between France and the church by
introducing the Concordat of 1801.
-In 1802 he made temporary peace with Britain by signing the Peace ofAmiens which
allowed him to focus on his European stuff.
- He created the Napoleonic code which set the foundation for Europe’s legal system.
-bank of france
-school of the lyces: military secondary educational system (better training for gov
5.2.In what three ways did Napoleon transform the imperial state
administration into a more centralized efficient bureaucracy?
-Expanded his territory and controlled almost all of Western Europe with the exception of
-establishment of the consulate (3 consuls, where napoleon was the first)--strong
-Plebiscite: voters on the legislative body could vote yes or no (authority from above,
confidence from below)
-The concordat: peace with church bringing it under state control
-Council of state-administrative body that oversaw finance, interior affairs and war
5.3.By overextending his resources and exporting nationalism to conquered
countries, Napoleon brought an end to his empire. Discuss.
Napoleon attempted to defeat his enemy’s (Britain) economy by refusing all european
ports to accept british shipments with the Continental System. By trying to impose the
Continental system in spain, the Peninsular War started which diverted french forces
from the rest of Europe.
When Russia withdrew from the Continental System, Napoleon wanted to enter Russia
to punish the King, however the harsh Russian winter took a toll on his army, killing
many of his men. During his travel to russia, he was clearly distracted and France had
become unstable, hence he went back to France to create a new army but was defeated at
Leipzig by other european forces. Hence he was exiled to Elba. He escaped and returned
to France to create a new army where he was again defeated and exiled, resulting in the
end of his empire.
5.4. What were the three goals of the Congress of Vienna? How did the Greek
revolt effectively put an end to this Congress system?
-Reorganize the Europe which Napoleon had left behind (determine the boundaries of
-Find a collective security system that would prevent anyone from ever building such a
large Empire again or having a revolution.
- Balance power in Europe, creation of the HolyAlliance
-restore dynastic legitimacy -->Greek revolt: totally turned congress system on its head. Christian europe had
traditionally looked down on Turks and in some way wanted to take the christian greek’s
side, but because of congress system they had to view the ottoman empire as the
legitimate sovereign of the greeks. started with alexander ypsilantis, founded counting on
russian support… but congress powers (including russia) condemned the insurrection but
western liberals and conservatives supported the greeks (saw as modern crusade for
christianity (Byron, etc). Finally in 1827, the british, english and russian signed treaty of
London to back greece, in 1932: greeks gained independence.
5.5. What were the basic tenets of 19 -century liberalism?
o More than an economic and political theory: it was a way of viewing the
o Liberals shared a confidence that human progress was inevitable, though
o Whereas Enlightenment inherited faith in science, Liberalism reflected
faith in middle-class confidence and economic aspirations
o Argue that all individuals should be free before the law
o Wanted freedom of the press, assembly
o Transitioned away from Revolution’s rights of man to rights of the citizen
(encompass more people)
o largely middle-class
o closely tied to nationalism movements as a source of allegiance and
o Their goal was the expansion of the electoral franchise
(Get more people to be able to vote)
o Primary function of government is to promote individual liberty and
representative government (unlike conservatism which values tradition
and stability even if there’s no individual freedom)
o Limiting power of government, empowering individual
o In response to industrialization
o [Overall: Power to the people → Individual over collective]
o Use Constant’s text.
o Not a political ideology
o Enlightenment was based on classical Greece, Romanticism based on
o Most pervasive school of thought in first half of 19th century
o It’s a generational mood that opted for emotion instinct over structural
o Another aspect: idea that an individual’s imaginative capacities is what’s
o Disenchantment w/ progress and science (Romantics are hesitant in
regards to science) -> instead they believe in creative destruction o Idea that everyday people are more important than bourgeoisie -> in any
Romantic paintings, the heroes are always ordinary people
6. Hoping to defuse tension, especially after the French revolution of 1830,
what reforms did the British Parliament introduce to appease British middle
• FactoryAct (1833)
o Tried to limit hours worked and give better working conditions
• ReformAct (1832)
o Reorganized Parliament to represent changing population movements as
well as liberalized voting qualifications (50% of adult males became
allowed to vote)
• Mines Act (1842)
o prohibited women from working in mines as well as children under 10
• Ten HoursAct (1847)
o limited work to ten hours for women and children
6.1 What were the three essential preconditions for the massive industrial and
economic growth of the first half of the 19th century?
Side note: “The first Industrial Revolution was largely the intensification of forms of
production that already existed.”
1) Demographic Explosion
Population growth accelerated in in first half of 19th century—Europe’s population
increased 43% from 1800 to 1850
This was partly due to lower mortality rates (vaccination for smallpox, municipalities
start paying more attention to cleanliness of cities)
Life expectancy increased in all classes
Lower infant mortality rates b/c of clean water
This was also a period of relative peace in Europe
2) ExpandingAgricultural Base
Agricultural production sustained the rise in population
Commercialized farming and manufacturing grew
More land gradually came under cultivation as marshes, brambles, bogs, and heaths gave
way to the plow
Ex. b/w 1750 and 1850 in Britain, 1/4 of country’s cultivable land was incorporated into
Farm yields increased in most of Europe through more intensive agricultural techniques
Few small family farms remained in Britain
3) Trains and steamboats First railroad train began hauling coal in northern England in 1820 and a passenger
service began in 1830
By 1850, railway construction employed 200,000 men
Reduced shipping costs by 2/3, dramatically increasing consumption, and in turn,
In 1816, a steamship sailed from Liverpool to Boston in 17 days, halving the previous
Increased trade, communication and industrial employment
6.2. How did the pattern and speed of industrialization differ in different parts of
Europe? Why was industrialization initially more rapid and extensive in Britain than it
was in the rest of Europe?
• Industrialization in France
-Second biggest economy after Britain.
-However, had less rich coal deposits thus transportation costs were kept
-Demand was also less in France b/c their population # rose less (30% b/w
1800 and 1850).
-Agricultural productivity remained relatively low as small family farms
• Industrialization in German states
-Lagged behind Britain and France
What undercut them:
-multiplicity of independent states
-lots of tolls and customs barriers
-monopolies held by guilds over the production and distribution of
• Why was England first?
-Its population increased rapidly -> increasing need for commodities
(agriculture and textiles) and wages went down b/c of larger supply of
-Elimination of small-scale farming
-Absence of guilds which would regulate prices, wages, and output
(existed in France and Germany but not England)
-Entrepreneurship was more positively seen in England
-British legal system was lenient
6.3. Who exactly were the 'middle class(es)' in 19th century Europe? Can we speak of
a common 'middle class culture', and, if so, what were its defining characteristics?
• Middle classes in industrializing countries (ex. Britain and France) were much
more cohesive than in Spain, Habsburg monarchy, or Russia, which still were
dominated by nobles
• The family was the basis of the middle class social order
• Middle class included people who were non-nobles and non-peasants
• Grew during industrial revolution • Was a very diverse class (in terms of wealth) -> despite that though, “education
and religious practice (however varied) provided a common culture for the
• Also, family was the basis of the order to the 19th century middle-class → men
were to provide for the family and women were to be domestic and take care of
family at home
• culture: all about family, love played a strong role (chose their partners based on
love instead of it being arranged). The poorer you are, the higher up you live in
• Contraception: 2 kids ~
• Religion still plays an important role
6.4. In what ways did the trajectory of the 'Second Industrial Revolution' of the late
19th century differ from its predecessor? What were some of the
technological/scientific discoveries which defined this period (page 753-58)?
Steam replaced by electricity
iron with steel
coal with oil
railways with cars
-first industrial revolution in Britain and the second one in Germany
• First industrial Revolution: based on water/steam power, coal, iron
• Second industrial Revolution: Electric power (instead of steam), oil (instead of
coal), steel instead of iron
• Whereas the first industrial revolution still relied on traditional forms of
production. It wasn’t until steam power came to be used in many different
industries in Western Europe that industrial manufacturing left these behind.
Handicraft production remained fundamental to manufacturing, as did domestic
industry (spinning, weaving, etc…). There were still more home workers than
industrial workers during this time period.
• Second Industrial Revolution began in 1850s and 60s
• Steel led the Second Industrial Revolution. Then electricity accelerated European
economic growth in the last two decades
• Technological advances
-Steel that was less expensive to produce than before, and so could be made in
larger quantities -> steel’s strength, durability and flexibility gave it a marked
advantage over iron
-Pasteur’s germ theory brought a virtual revolution in health care (ex.
immunization of animals)
-Electricity made possible the invention of the electromagnetic telegraph, the
undersea cable, and the telephone, yet electricity didn’t become widespread until
late in the century -> unlike water power/coal it could be transported easily,
making countries with fewer natural resources able to use it
-First trams and first subways -Carl Benz and the Motorwagen (the first automobile) -> transformed
travel -> no more horses for transport
-Zeppelin built (air travel)
-More Europeans could now travel for leisure than ever before and the
travel business boomed. Middle class vacations became more common
-The Telephone byAlexander Bell in 1876 reached private homes.
Germans made 8 million telephone calls in 1883
6.5. What were some of the challenges faced by the growing working class populations
of Europe's industrial cities? How did governments and upper/middle class moralists
respond to the social problems of the inner cities?
Very similar to the first industrialization
Slums, little or no space between the houses
⅓ of city families lived in one room
• Population boom: Europe’s population increased by half b/w 1870 and 1914
• Living standards improved in every industrialized city, wages increased, and more
money was left to spend on consumer goods (not just food)
• More grain and meat
• Decline of religious practice
• “Moralists bemoaned the effects of industrial work, arguing that the uprooting of
families from villages put them at risk in cities and factories characterized by vice
• Child labor continued, despite laws prohibiting it
• Moralists believed that only education, marriage, frugality, and a return to the old
ways could save family life. Reduced education .
• Long hours in the factory for parents and children alike seemed to erode parental
• Moralists blamed increasingly homogeneous working-class neighborhoods, where
drinking and domestic violence seemed rampant
7.1 Briefly summarise the political ideology of early socialist thinkers such as Saint-
Simon, Proudhon, and Karl Marx. How did they differ in their visions of the ideal
Saint-Simon (early 19th century thinker): Utopian socialist.AFrench early socialist
theorist, he said scientific thinkers and skilled workers should be free from a system that
is owned by monarchs, dukes, etc… Hierarchy should be based not on blood but
productivity. That way poverty could be eliminated. He influenced Marx
Proudhon: Wanted abolition of the state. sought not the strengthening of the state but its
abolition. First anarchist. Saw the state as the principal reason why capitalism exploited
workers. He wanted workers to organize themselves in small, autonomous groups of
producers that would govern themselves. Karl Marx (1818-1883):Although he admired them, he found utopian socialists naive
and ‘unscientific’. Concluded that capitalism was just a stage in world history (French
revolution marked overthrow of feudal society in bourgeois revolution, now it was time
for a proletariat revolution where end of private property and pure communism would
follow). Had to wait for greater class consciousness to form and this was inevitable
7.2. What political and social goals were shared by revolutionaries in all of the
European countries which experienced upheaval during ‘the springtime of the
Peoples’, 1848? What do we mean when we speak of ‘liberalism’in this period?
Common goals: moderate political changes, lessing of restriction on the press, states with
elective assemblies, expansion of an electoral franchise (bc there were many different
interest, there were different demands)
Liberalism in this period: read week 5 #5. pg. 579-580
-Started in France spread throughout Europe (except England and Russia) and was shut
down after one year. They were middle-class movements who were reacting to hard times
of the 1840s, marked by harvest and business failures.
Dissatisfaction with political leadership
Demands for more participation in govt and democracy
Demands of working classes
Upsurge of nationalism
7.3. Why were the Revolutions of 1848 defeated? Was this really a moment when
“European history reached its turning point and failed to turn”, or did the Revolutions
cause lasting changes in European society nonetheless?
• Lack of consensus amongst revolutionaries -> lack of communication (ex. in
France b/w departments). They had succeeded at first b/c French, Prussian and
Austrian authorities weren’t prepared militarily
• They didn’t have a plan for once they took power
• Things actually got worse after revolutions: European states became even stronger
• However, the Revolutions of 1848 marked the first time workers put forward
organized demands for political rights (ex. demands for universal male suffrage)
• Also radical French peasants who revolted helped dispel the myth of a
• The mid-century revolutions influenced the subsequent political evolution of each
country that had had a revolution in the spring of 1848
• The counter-revolution also scattered committed republicans, nationalists and
socialists around the world where they would further spread their ideas 7.4. How were Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel II able to succeed in 1859-70 where
many others had failed, unifying the Italian peninsula into a single nation-state? Why
did the new Italian state struggle to create a truly unified nation of ‘Italians’in the
• How did Cavour (prime minister) and King Victor Emmanuel succeed?
o Around this time, nationalist sentiment developed among the liberal
aristocracy and upper middle classes -> they had a common hatred of
Austria (which had held parts of Italy since end of 15th century)
o King Victor and Cavour
Increased credit for businessmen, reduced tariffs, attracted foreign
capital, built railways and strengthened army
He got support of France and Great Britain to oustAustria
(Napoleon III led 100,000 troops into Northern Italy
• Why did the new state struggle to create unified Italy?
o Northern Italy has always been considerably more prosperous than the
o The Hapsburg monarchy also presented a formidable obstacle to Italian
unification, as it retained Venetia and Lombardy, and dominated Parma,
Tuscany, and Modena in north-central Italy
o Italy lacked a tradition of centralized administration. Powerful local elites
created their own parallel governments in much of the south and Sicily.
o Disagreement b/w elites and nationalists over whether a unified Italy
should be governed by a monarchy, a republic, or even by the pope
7.5. What three wars did Prussia fight in the period 1864-71, and how did victories in
these wars allow Bismarck to unite the German states into a conservative, militaristic
• Bismarck’s first war was fought against the Danes in 1864 -> after some fighting
the Prussian forces withdrew. But “Prussia’s defeat seemed a defeat for the cause
of German nationalism”
• Austro-Prussia War (1866) -> Prussian troops defeat South German and
• Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) -> Prussian victory in this war completed the
unification of the German states, with the exception ofAustria.
7.6. Why was the rise of nationalistic feeling in late 19 century Europe so problematic
for the unity of the Austrian Empire? How did the creation of the Dual Monarchy in
1867 attempt to deal with these challenges?
• Nationalism threatened the very existence of the Habsburg monarchy
• The unification of Germany, as well as that of Italy, altered the balance of power
in Central Europe. Unified Germany, notAustria, was now unquestionably the
strongest state in Central Europe. Moreover, the absorption of Lombardy and
Venetia into the Italian state had come at the expense of theAustrian Habsburgs (I don’t know where I got these questions below, but they seem like they could be useful)
7.7. Why didn’t England revolt?
• It was a “reform nation” -> political reform was made through compromise, not
• Bourgeois respectability -> bourgeois sign petitions instead of revolting
• Chartism -> those who petitioned for universal male suffrage and failed were
gradualists and not very radical
• Strong English nationalism already present
7.8. What happened after 1848?
States grew stronger then before but eventually liberalism prevailed. Britain expanded
suffrage in 1867 and in 1870s universal male suffrage was adopted in Germany, Belgium,
Spain,Austria and Italy.
7.9. Was there a Second Industrial Revolution?
• Yes, last 3 decades of 19th century with electricity and steel which transformed
manufacturing -> cities grew rapidly b/c of this
• Growing conditions of poor encouraged socialist parties to form
• Trade unions put forth demands and strikes
• In these last 3 decades, liberalism was on the defensive against nationalism (who
said nation was more important than popular sovereignty) ->
nationalism/imperialism would become hugely popular in late 19th, early 20th
7.10. Why was the rise of nationalistic feeling in late 19 century Europe so
problematic for the unity of the Austrian Empire? How did the creation of the Dual
Monarchy in 1867 attempt to deal with these challenges?
8.1 Mention at least three Victorian reforms that signaled the expansion of the role of
the British state and the end of the laissez-faire liberalism era.
-victorian era was conservative (British government more conservative)
1. Expanded # of bureaucrats b/w 1841 to 1911 by hundreds of thousands
2. Municipalities became responsible for local government, education,
health, housing, roads and policing
3. Civil service became professionalized
4. Reform Bill 1867: universal male suffrage
8.2.How did tsarist Russia respond to calls for reform and how effective were these
reforms? 1. Emancipated the 22 million serfs in 1861 -> “the most ambitious attempt
at reform in Russia during the 19th century”.After two years they received
land through the commune and had to repay for land in annual payments
2. However, now they were slaves to the state and taxation (had to play their
part in the commune) -> resulted in large-scale urbanization
3. only economic changes - not effective reforms (did not do anything) - tried
to promote the economy to keep people happy
8.3.What three main measures did Napoleon III take to consolidate the Second
1. Napoleon III proclaimed himself Emperor in 1852
2. Promoted economic growth, encouraged urban rebuilding projects, created
institutions that provided credit (ex. state mortgage banks) and constructed
more railways. Moreover, in 1859, Napoleon III initiated the ‘liberal
empire,’encouraging a series of reforms, including authorizing a liberal
trade treaty with Britain in 1860 and permitting the legalization of strikes
8.4. How did the Franco-Prussian war precipitate the fall of the Second Empire and
the rise of the Third Republic?
1. Prussian army besieged Paris (1871)
2. The NationalAssembly elected in February 1871 a monarchist majority.
Yet most people in France wanted a republic. Gradually the Third
Republic took hold, which was first conservative, than moderate and by
1899 quite socially radical.
c. During the siege, socialists/Jacobins/republicans called for the “Paris
Commune” to defend Paris. Versailles governmen