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HIST 215 Final: Comprehensive guide, got a an A+! (pictures included)Premium

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HIST 215
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HIST 215- Lecture 1- Military Revolutions
- The EU doesn’t necessarily mean Europe. Tries to avoid being the feel of the
certain number of violent experiences (genocides, 2 world wars). It tries to
be a continent of unity and diversity, and acceptance of difference and at the
same time seen as an organic state. 28 countries are participating with many
different histories to it self.
- No geographic definition of Europe. It is a philosophical and historical project
(diversity and interconnection with the rest of the world). Unity with the
Americans, Ottomans, African, Asian, Europe has the need to create an
identification of being European through boundaries (different layers of
- 1500s- 1600s myth of Titian, The Rape of Europa (1559- 1562).
- Europe derived through migration, facts that were brought from somewhere
Military Revolution
- Massacres and poor lives of 17th century peasants (excerpts from Simplicius
- Diego Velazquez Royal court painter of globalization. Ex: The Surrender of
Brenda (1634- 1635). Painted this 10 years after it happened because the
Spanish weren’t doing well
- Rembrandt (van Rijn) The Shooting Company of Frans Banning Cocq.
Painting ordered to be shown in public (4x4 in size). Municipal Hall of
Amsterdam. Showed how important it is for a militia to defend the city of
I. Before the Wars Changed the Continent
A. Europe: A politically fragmented world (1500)
- Important qualities that exist
- Catholic monarchy (dominates because of colonization)
- 1648: thousands of political entities compared to the current 50
- 30 year War, lots of political entities disappeared because the war drained
their economy
- A World of Composite Monarchies
Not unified, composed of very different entities only united by the fact
that have a king, but in terms of culture and political institutions they
are very different
North (Sweden and Denmark), West (England, France and Spain), East
(Russia, Polish/ Lithuanian, Ottoman Empire), Central Europe
(indeterminate mass of political entities)
- Factionalism of Holy Roman Empire
Elected emperor (usually a Habsburg), very distinguished and had
different cultural frames

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- Dynastic rivalries (Habsburgs vs. Capetian Bourbons)
Leaders in France
Loss of the Factionalism of the HRE
B. Religiously Divided Europe (Cuius region, eius religio)
- Majority were Orthodox
- Christianity was dominant especially since the Spanish expelled and forced to
convert in the 15th century
- Division between western Christians (because of the Reformation in the
Germanic lands)
- Division between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants
- The Calvinists (Particularly in the French lands) and the Lutherans
(Germanic lands and Northern Europe)
- The Anglicans (Church of England) Started by King Henry VIII
- 30 Year War end of these religious wars
- France between the Calvinists and the Catholics
C. Old Style Warfare
- Small (decentralized) armies small armies coming together from different
cities or regions where the local lords had to bring together faithful soldiers
- Importance of Cavalry
- Mercenaries (Condottiere- Spinola/ Kreigsherren (German land “war
Lord”- Tilly/ Wallenstein)
Professional entrepreneurs
- Multiple castles and fortified cities
- The Ottoman exception (Janissaries: used to be Christians that had been
taken from very early youth, converted into Islam, trained in school to be
faithful soldiers of the emperor (Sultan), not allowed to reproduce. Elite
formation) they were the first to use gunpowder, cannons, and have an
official, standing army. Sparked the imagination of the Europeans
II. The Military Revolution
A. Change in Army Composition and Equipment
- Lots of foot soldiers
- Progressively learn how to duel the previous arms that were used (the bow)
- Use of gunpowder change certain things because they could use more
powerful guns and cannons and then the cities had to create more
sophisticated fortifications
- Massive ground armies (start organizing them)
B. Increase of Army Size
- Prussia 1648: 5000 men 1750: 180,000 men
C. Modifications of Defense (Back to Breda)
- Fortifications became extremely sophisticated because of gunpowder
- Do not attack from any side without being able to counterattacks

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- City of Lille star fortification
D. Training, logistics, and… diplomacy
- Drills and strategy soldiers had to learn these, act in a coordinated manner
(flags to show where to go during the fight)
- Mapping good view of the fortifications and where the enemy troops were
- Clothing and army people had to produce similar types of soldiers
Industries to provide arms for the soldiers
- Consular services and diplomats
- Hospitals
III. Europe Transformed
A. States
B. Landscapes (Urban and Rural)
C. People now the soldiers had to be trained, had to go to school or learn
specific elements to be able to fight (obey the orders of officers, speaking the
HIST 215- Lecture 2- The Social Order of the “Old Order”: A society based on
assumed inequality
- Contrasting to modern society, where we have equal rights and “presumed”
- Inequality of wealth, education, cultural capital, social statues (which is not
the basis of our current society)
- Before the 18th century, there was only one culture where equality was
present Athenian Greek society
- Every other society considered that there was inequality and that this was
Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels”
Yahoo- He is talking about the humans, trying to criticize his own society. Using this
term to avoid accusations because blasphemy was a crime. Authors were trying to
go around this.
- Gulliver also talks about travelling and how it is good
Elias’ “Civilization Process”
- Text written in 1930s, about the process of civilization
- Little red Riding Hood 17/18th century. By the end of the 18th century it
started changing and evolved because the message was very different
pertaining to the time. It was addressing a completely different society. The
cartoon goes even further because it talks about the 20th century. The wolf
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