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HIST 218 - Midterm Two Review

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McGill University
HIST 218
Gavin Walker

Chapter Eight – Emergence of Modern Japan (1874-1894) 1868: Meiji Restoration 1889: Promulgation of Constitution 1877: Satsuma Rebellion 1890: Rescript on Education 1880: Public Meeting Law 1894-95: Sino-Japanese War − first priority of Meiji leaders was transform Japan into modern nation equal to West − some changes new; others, a re-interpretation of past − myth of 'national essence' draws on Tokugawa nativism, but became myths participating in Japan's process of becoming modern Political Developments − small inner circle dominates government from 1870s to 80s − 1874: military sent to Taiwan; Chinese recognition of Japanese sovereignty over Ryukyu − samurai who felt betrayed by Meiji leaders led uprisings − Satsuma Rebellion (1877) − 42 000, led by Saigo Takamori; last stand of samurai − strained resources of Restoration government, but ultimately crushed − continued violence, including assassination of Okubo Toshimichi, 1878 − non-violent political opposition, including those demanding elected legislature (referring to first article of 1868 Charter Oath) − advocates for constitution and popular rights drew on Western political theory − constitutionalism, rule of law, 'social contract,' human rights − not limiting powers of state; main argument for constitutions was that representative institutions would create greater unity between the people and the Emperor − constitution not to control Emperor, but his advisors − Emperor grants constitution in 1890 Formation of Parties − first parties: Liberal (Jiyuto) and Progressive (Kaishinto) − both wanted constitutional government with meaningful parliamentary powers − Jiyuto: rural support; lower taxes − Kaishinto: urban, moderate, English-style liberalism, merchants and industrialists − internal factionalism (patron-client relations) − restrictive laws (1875 and 1877) to control political criticism − 1880 – Public Meeting Law: all political meetings under police supervision − Liberal party hurt by antagonisms from within (radical anti-landowners and landowners themselves both members of party) − centralized local administration put end to Tokugawa local self- government − local assemblies created with limited rights − new codes: bureaucratic procedure, civil service, criminal law, civil and commercial laws − Ito Hirobumi: European theories and practices, mostly German, 1882- 83 − 1884: new peerage, composed of old nobility, former daimyo, and some oligarchs − 1885: European-style cabinet; Ito as premier − 1888: Privy Council organized as highest government advisory board Emperor and Constitution − 1882: division of Shinto into Shrine and Sect − former became official state institutions; latter, regular 'religious' bodies − permitted government to identify with Shinto tradition, preserving divine source of Emperor's power, while meeting Western demands of religious tolerance − nativism and modernity combined in image of Emperor − 1889: new constitution promulgated as 'gift' from Emperor to people − Emperor supreme, source of sovereignty; could declare war, sign treaties, command army, dissolve legislature, veto legislation, issue ordinances, amend Constitution − actual power exercised by Privy Council, cabinet, Diet, and general staff − ministers responsible to Emperor, not legislature − House elected by tax-paying property owners (1.1 per cent of population) − fiscal power; however, automatic renewal of previous budget if Diet fails to pass one − norm: prime minister and other major decisions reached by consulting genro (elder statesmen and leaders of Meiji restoration) − 1890 election: only minority of reps favoured government, resulting fierce budget battle − 1891: budget failed to pass; Parliament dissolved − 1892: police used to discourage opposition; still failed to win favourable Parliament − 1893: imperial intervention − 1894: majority remained opposed; Diet dissolved again − only war with China over Korea broke political deadlock Western Influence on Values and Ideas − general enthusiasm for Western influences, including arts (Western light/shading into ukiyo-e), architecture, fashion, music, literature (novels, translations), paralleled by neglect and disdain for traditional art − Meirokusha: prestigious society devoted to all aspects of Western knowledge − firm belief in progress of Enlightenment influenced Japanese intellectuals − saw negative re-evaluation of Chinese civilization as unchanging and decadent − regarded with condescension as much as concern − Fukuzawa Yukichi: traced lack of individualism to social institutions such as family − progressive (for the time) views on women (monogamy, education, proprietorship) − held that history made by people, not great leaders − independence of people and country linked − universal movement of history towards democracy; individual liberty is national strength − looked to European natural law − replaced by discourse on Social Darwinism − applied to success or failure of individuals in society; justified brutal competition; focus on militancy − purported scientific basis offered persuasive explanation of present, while holding hope for a different future; Japan did not have to accept current inferiority − turned strength into moral criterion − Fukuzawa lost confidence in natural and international law; saw IR as area for national struggles for survival − 1882: accepted autocracy if it meant strengthening the nation; favoured imperialist expansion to assure safety and 'bring civilization' Conservatism and Nationalism − turn towards conservative thought in late '80s − many attracted to 'Eastern ethics; Western technology' − some feared foreign culture would lead to national decline; wanted to adopt 'universalist' aspects of Western culture while retaining what is 'Japanese' − conservative voices affirmed Japanese uniqueness; emphasized not individual but state Education − many students sent overseas − foreign instructors also brought to Japan until Japanese education was in operation − centralized education system replaced uncoordinated network of academics − fell short of goal − education focused on providing skills necessary for modernization − also used to foster values and mold Japanese people into a nation − Rescript on Education (1890): attributes glory of Empire to ancestors and Emperor; calls on subjects to observe Confucian virtues of filial piety and public good − Confucianism identified with throne; premium placed on patriotism to Emperor Modernizing the Economy − Japan still largely agrarian − Western experience showed capital accumulated through sale of surplus agriculture and labour obtained through urban migration were necessary conditions for modernization; both existed in Meiji Japan − agriculture made more efficient (new seed strains, fertilizers, methods of cultivation) − new farmlands opened, especially in Hokkaido − rice yields increased dramatically, and rice consumption per capita increased − did not result in major changes for growers − organizations remained same; rents remained high − profits went to landlord rather than peasant − West carried out industrial revolution via private enterprise; Japan through gov. − heavy investment in economic infrastructure: education, transportation, communication − major effort in railroads − sequence of state initiative followed by private development − many sectors deemed essential, but too risky/unprofitable for private enterprise in short term; thus, government financed start-up costs Zaibatsu − capital needed for investment, payment due to samurai, costs of Satsuma Rebellion, and adverse balance of trade created government financial crisis − inflation hurt government purchasing power and samurai − 1880: government cut expenditures -> deflation − late 1880s: sold all enterprise except munitions − resulted in small group of well-connected firms enjoying controlling positions: Zaibatsu − usually organized by new entrepreneurs; some exceptions (Mitsui) − usually diversified holdings while maintaining collusive relations with government − success partly due to ability to attract talent; recruited ex-samurai − financial necessity, but also appealed, as helping business meant helping state − contributed to social acceptability of business and capitalism − thus, companies did not exist for profit, but to contribute to Japanese nation − this collusion kept consumption low even as national income rose Military − 1874: Taiwan: domestic purposes; Meiji consolidation of power − 1877: Satsuma: domestic; Meiji consolidation of power − 1894-95: Sino-Japanese: imperialistic; testing of Chinese strength − 1874-94: major improvements made to Japanese army, including reorganization along German lines and strengthening of reserves, and consequently, military potential − generous military financing enabled modern equipment, mostly indigenous manufacture − England was model for navy, as well as source from which larger vessels were purchased − had facilities to maintain, repair, and arm fleet − stimulated new industries; also facilitated modernization of rural conscripts − essential consumption patterns and basic material components remained traditional th Chapter Nine – China and Korea in Late 19 Century I. China 1861-1872: Self-Strengthening Phase 1884-1885: Sino-French War One 1872-1884: Phase Two 1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War 1884-1894: Phase Three − 1862-1874: Tongzhi period sought to revive country with Confucian reformism − expenses/taxes cut; relief and public works projects initiated − priority to agriculture, as always − education system reformed; sought to eliminate bureaucratic corruption − however, reform did not penetrate lower levels of bureaucracy − because reform driven by provinces, it facilitated trend towards regionalism − led to removal of constraints on local wealth and power Self-Strengthening − aimed to fortify Qing through selective borrowing from West − first phase: focus on military modernization and international relations − second phase: transportation, communication, and mining − third phase: light industry − first phase saw creation of gun factories and arsenals − shipbuilding machinery brought from France − new approach to international relations: office of General Management − establishment of schools of foreign languages − run at first by foreigners, who also ran military establishments − other foreigners assisted in providing advice and equipment − began process of treaty revisions; unsuccessful Self-Strengthening: The Theory − many scholars moved away from philology to focus on policy studies − Feng Guifen: urged China to use barbarian techniques against barbarians − Chinese learning would remain heart of civilization, while Western learning subordinate − 'Western means for Chinese ends' − conservatives concerned of Western contamination − in Japan, social change was sanctioned with appeal to nationalism − in China, Confucianism too closely associated with social structure Empress Dowager and the Government − dominant figure at court from mid- '70s until death − intelligent, educated daughter of minor Manchu official; entered palace as low-ranking concubine; bore Xianfeng emperor his only son − became co-regent for her son, Tongzhi emperor, whom she dominated − manipulated succession to place on throne four-year-old nephew − expert manipulator, but also oversaw extensive corruption − only goal was maintaining power; no aversion, nor commitment, to modernization − West was helping to support dynasty financially even as it undermined its foundations − Sino-French war (1884-1885) fought over Vietnam, Taiwan, and Pescadores; resulted in destruction of Fuzhou dockyards and fleet − afterwards, Self-Strengthening would include light industry Education − sending students abroad had mixed successes − young students began absorbing American ways, customs; some even married American girls and converting to Christianity − schools of alternative study in China taught both Confucian curriculum and new subjects − however, examination system meant Confucian classics were key to future success, meaning that that was what students focused on − suggestions of examination reform encountered opposition, for it affected Confucian core of civilization Economic Self-Strengthening − new industries (shipping, textile mills, telegraph, coal mines) also suffered from corruption and poor management − private capital was scarce; came mostly from Chinese businessmen − records of these companies were mixed − stagnation following initial spurt − failed to train Chinese technical personnel − plagued by incompetent managers, nepotism, and corruption Traditional Economic Sector − Chinese tea found increasing difficulty competing against India and Sri Lanka − silk remained important export, until overtaken by Japan in 1904 − world economy's effect on China was to telescope and accelerate change in the small peasant economy Missionary Efforts and Christian Influences − missionaries returned, bringing modern medicine and other secular knowledge − also made efforts in education, while propagating West and religion − served as cultural intermediaries; contributed to scholarship and news media − met with some success, but strength mainly concentrated in large treaty ports − however, there were still some strong hostile elements − mixed successes resulted from challenge of translation, particularly the most important elements of doctrine, such as the Trinity, sin, and of course, God − still disagreements about translation of God today − Chinese also associated Christianity with Taiping rebellion and unequal treaties − Christianity undermined by false converts and rumours, which were encouraged by elites who saw threat of foreign religion undermining elite's own status and values − in Japan, Christianity served spiritual needs and provided vehicle for social protest − in China, Christianity also appealed to people dissatisfied with status quo; however, real cutting edge of protest was to be found elsewhere − these missionaries also developed negative views of China and its inhabitants, reverse of earlier idealized picture painted by Jesuits II. Korea 1866: General Sherman 1885: Li Hongzhang and Ito Agreement 1875: Clash with Japan 1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War 1876: Treaty with Japan 1895: Treaty of Shimonoseki 1882: Chinese intervention − dynastic restoration, similar as in China − Taewon-gun reforms − fought corruption − appointed on merit rather than family ties − attacked sowon academies to eat at power of strongest yangban − encountered opposition from daughter-in-law and her family, from the yangban class, and from merchants (dissatisfied with being asked to pay for recontruction of palace) − commoners also suffered under forced labour, taxation, and inflation Incursion of the Powers − refused to meet with Europeans; cited special relationship with China − however, French Catholicism remained strong—until massive purge in 1866 − seclusion reaffirmed by fighting off French and American envoys sent to 'open' Korea − 1875: Japan 'opens' Korea − initiates reform movement of young yangban − King Kojong showed independent streak and interest in progressive ideas − adopted China's 'Self-Strengthening' thought and allowed controlled reform − tolerated Christianity − signed treaty with United States in 1882 − opened floodgates − by mid-1890s, missionaries, traders, speculators, teachers, mining engineers, and randos from England, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, and Belgium lived in Korea − these all exacerbated tension between conservative and progressive factions − 1882: soldiers demanded Japanese-style modern military units − King Kojong calls back father, former regent − proceeds to dismantle foreign offices − Japan sends troops, ostensibly to collect reparations for damages − China reacts by sending more troops − China kidnaps regent − beginning of intense Chinese meddling in Korea's internal affairs − 'recommended' advisors to direct Korean policy − established resident advisor to Seoul Gradualists versus Advocates of 'Enlightenment' − Chinese intervention thwarted most radical proposals − progressives = Enlightenment Party − gradualists saw Chinese interference as way to stave off fundamental change − progressives wanted change in style of Meiji Japan rather than Li Hongzhang's China − change political and social structure (abolish classes) − reform education system − liberate from Qing influence − became violent − 1885: Li Hongzhang and Ito Hirobumi sign agreement − both China and Japan would withdraw military from Korea; both refrain from giving military aid to Korea, and to consult before acting if intervention appeared necessary again Christianity and Western Thought − many yangban still remained opposed to Western heterodoxies − though Western missionaries had difficulties at first, they were unhampered by association with gunboat diplomacy and Taiping-style rebellion that had frightened many in China − positive response by many to foreign ideology partly due to grand disillusionment that gripped Korean intellectuals at this time − even some yangban were tired of corruption of Choson political culture − since Li-Ito convention, China tightened grip on Korea − Queen Min's male relatives created oligarchic faction for themselves − Japanese created own sphere of operations in Korea centring on ports − began penetrating Korean markets with imports, while removing rice and food for export Tonghak Rebellion and Sino-Japanese War − simmering Sino-Japanese rivalry in Korea in early 1890s − catalyst: Tonghak Rebellion − religious movement combining Buddhist tradition and Chinese/Korean folk religion − soon took on political significance, serving as vehicle for protest against excess taxation, corruption, and decay of national regime − became major force in 1893, and 1894 when Korea struck by famine − Seoul government called for help; China dispatched troops; Japan responds − all had expected China to win; thus, all were surprised with Japanese victory − Japan was better equipped, better-led, and more united than China − in addition, many in south China were disinterested, and not invested in war Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) − China renounced special role in Korea, recognizes it as independent state − cedes Taiwan to Japan − paid Japan indemnity, granted Japan most-favoured-nation status, opened ports to Japanese trade − Russia, France, and Germany block transfer of Liaodong Peninsula to Japan Chapter Ten – China: Endings and Beginnings (1895-1927) 1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War 1911: Chinese Revolution 1898: Hundred Days of Reform 1914: Warlord era 1900: Boxer Rebellion 1919: May Fourth Movement 1905: Revolutionary Alliance 1921: Founding of CCP 1908: Death of Cixi 1927: Founding of Nationalist government Last Years of the Last Dynasty New Reformers − following defeat by Japan, reformers agitated for more radical changes − some called for constitutional monarch; others, a republic − Yan Fu: western learning needed to release Chinese energies; rejected Chinese tradition − Hundred Days of Reform: − Emperor Guangxu asserted authority; issued edicts aimed at reforming examination system, remodeling bureaucracy, and promoting modernization − however, edicts initiated, not necessarily implemented − Cixi moved to place Emperor Guangxu under house arrest − Cixi exiled China's most advanced thinkers, but was not completely against reform − approved moderate reforms, such as military modernization, reforms in education, and monetary and fiscal systems − problems due to weakness of central government − China's weakness against Japan prompted Russia, France, Britain, Germany, U.s., and Japan to scramble to exploit China for concessions, economic and political Boxer Rebellion − developed in response to harsh economic conditions − fuelled by xenophobia, which in turn stemmed from expansion of railways − originally antidynastic; changed direction when supported by high Qing officials, who wanted to use movement against foreign powers − June 13, 1990: entered Beijing − June 21: court issues war against all treaty powers − ends August 15 with international relief force − harsh indemnity and other concessions − Russia uses Boxer rebellion as excuse to occupy Manchuria Winds of Change − modern sector (ex. railways) of Chinese economy dominated by foreign capital − foreign control of much of Chinese mining, shipping, manufacturing, and banking − foreign investments concentrated in treaty ports -> development of first factories − emergence of bourgeoisie in treaty ports − also beginnings of urban working class − increased influence of semi-modern urban elite, composed of merchants, bankers, military, professionals, and absentee landowners − examination system abolished in 1905; aim by government to secure loyalty of graduates of new schools − end of key institution that linked government and society Stirrings of Protest and Revolution − ban of footbinding in 1902 − however, persisted in cities and rural areas − increased flurry of public protests − dissatisfaction with government linked with resentment against foreigners Eleventh-Hour Reform − abolition of examination system was just most drastic of series of reforms by Cixi − others included drive against opium − failed to inspire change in officials − many measure taken to save the Qing ended up undermining it − education reforms allowed many students to travel outside of China, particularly to Japan − exposure to Western influence, history, and ideas; particularly Social Darwinism − students became increasingly restive and revolutionary − 1908: announced nine-year plan for constitutional reform, beginning with provincial assemblies in 1909 − these became centre of opposition rather than popular support − military reforms also failed; soldiers either influenced by new subversive ideas, or were more loyal to their commanders than to the throne − government failed to emerge as plausible focus for nationalism Revolution of 1911 − modernization program also handicapped by Qing financial weakness − prelude to revolt: nationalization of railways − angered provincial elites, who had to sell shares at poor prices − angered nationalists, as government only financed nationalization by accepting foreign loans − sparked by mutiny of New Army regiment − following, province after province broke with dynasty − some turned to Yuan Shikai, military general, patronized by the late Cixi − others turned to Sun Yat-sen − Manchu child-emperor formally abdicated February 2, 1912 Yuan Shikai − Sun stepped aside; Yuan accepted presidency with two-chambered legislature − little restrained Yuan from becoming dictator − elections held in 1913: Guomindang became largest party − Yuan did not want to share power; assassinated author of constitution and leader of GMD Song Jiaoren − dismissed pro-Nationalist southern military governors − sought to continue late Qing program of centralization − struggled against reformist provincialism and revolutionary nationalism − 1915: Japan presents China with twenty-one demands − Yuan avoided most onerous demands, which would have reduced China to Japanese satellite − still forced to cede many political, economic, and territorial rights to japan − led to another wave of anti-Japanese nationalism − did not attempt to harness nationalist feeling − restored dynasty with him as head on 1915 − overwhelming hostility: Yuan forced to abdicate in 1916 Warlord Era − 1917: two-week restoration of Qing − though a national government ruled in Beijing, actual power lay in hands of regional warlords, who came to dominate local civil administration largely through force of arms − continued presence of foreigners − 1917-23: golden age of Chinese capitalism − increased influence of world economy Intellectual Ferment − in China, as in Japan, radicals were drawn to teachings of anarchism − abolition of examination system and collapse of Qing opened floodgates to new ideas, without destroying deeply held respect given to scholars and intellectuals − 1915: founding of New Youth − called for rejuvenation accompanied by denunciation of tradition and Confucianism − successful campaign to valorize vernacular language − universally used by end of 1920s − May 4, 1919: demonstration against Treaty of Versaille, which gave former German possessions in Shandong to Japan, despite China entering war on allied sides − students ultimately won; China never signed Treaty of Versailles − movement soon encompassed total rejection of past − oversaw intense period of intellectual foment and disagreement over China's future Intellectual Alternatives − science vs metaphysics − Chinese drew on European thinkers such as Immanuel Kant − some wanted valorization of science; others, for synthesis of Western science with Chinese tradition − increased impatience with gradualist approahces Marxism in China: The Early Years − had little appeal prior to Russian Revolution − originally was more attractive for utopian egalitarianism than for class struggle − classical Marxism suggests socialism could only be achieved after capitalist development − Marxist-Leninism thus was more relevant for China − also significant was Lenin's theory of imperialism, and his vanguardism, the latter which appealed to Chinese intellectuals − Marxism also shared prestige that Chinese intellectuals gave to Western, scientific ideas − CCP formed in 1921 − under advise from Russian Comintern, CP originally submitted to policy of full cooperation with GMD Guomindang and Sun Yat-sen (1913-1923) − again sent to exile in Japan in 1913 − tired to win Japanese support − following Yuan Shikai's death, Sun returns to China, establishes foothold in Canton − denied foreign funding, handicapped by weakness of GMD party organization − success of Russian Revolution provided striking contrast to Sun's failed revolution − increased anti-imperialist emphasis, after he saw end of Manchu rule had not led to marked improvement in China's position in world − ready to work with CCP − reorganized by Comintern agent into more structured and disciplined organization, as well as its army GMD and CCP Cooperation (1923-1927) − marriage of convenience for both sides − GMD gained guidance and support; CCP gained growth − CCP at first focused on winning urban victories, which were fertile grounds for labour organizers; dramatic growth by mid 1920s − March 1925: death of Sun Yat-sen − Three principles of the People: − Nationalism: self-determination of China; autonomy against foreign imperialism − Democracy: limited popular elections; full democracy after preparatory period − People's Livelihood: both egalitarianism and economic development − following Sun's death, CCP steadily gained influence from within GMD − March 1926: Chiang declares martial law, attempts to restrain CCP influence in GMD; managed to retain cooperation of CCP and Soviets − used support to launch Northern Expedition in 1926 The Break − GMD army assisted by popular support − increase in labour activity alarmed Chinese bankers and industrialists; financed increasingly anti-Communist Chiang Kai-shek − April, 1927: complete break with CCP; bloody campaign of suppression in Shanghai, which spread to other cities − suspected Communists shot on sight, CCP cells destroyed, unions disbanded − urban CCP left shattered; yet, most of CCP remained urban-minded − split of GMD into military branch, led by Chiang, and civilian branch, led by Wang Jingwei − CCP broke with Chiang, maintained relations with Wang; Wang also broke with Chiang, but depended on armies financed largely by landlords Establishment of Nationalism Government − established in Nanjing, which remained capital until 1937 − Northern Expedition resumed in 1928 − Wuhan leaders made peace with Chiang, as well as some warlords − nevertheless, warlordism remained essential feature of Chinese politics until 1949 − Beijing falls to Nationalists in June 1928 − Chiang's victories reassured all foreign powers except Japan − Japan restored Shandong to Chinese sovereignty in 1922; sent troops again in 1928 − assassination of warlord of Manchuria Zhang Zuolin by Japanese army officers Chapter Eleven – Imperial Japan (18
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