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326 - Week 7 – Midterm - Midterm Revision Notes .docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 326
Professor
Katrin Bozeva
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 7 – Midterm History 326 – Russia from 1905 Midterm Notes Week 1, Lecture 3 – Nationalities within the Russian Empire Multiple ethnic groups lived in the empire after 1881  interesting to note whom were loyal or not loyal to the monarch L19thC = Russian Empire took on the features of two differing imperial systems: 1 – European traditional land empire  situated in the contemporary location of Russia 2 – colonial empire with the features associated with colonial rule inc. exploitation of raw materials and economic gain - inhabitants of these nations were not integrated in the imperial system; often in CAsia w. conquest between 1830-1881 Loyal Ones = these national groups did not pose a threat ▯ co-operated with the imperial centre in St P - e.g. Baltics, Finns, economically and militarily important smaller national groups inc. Georgians andArmenians First group: Baltic Peoples - Baltic Germans whom had come to the region as colonisers, forming the modern nations of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia - Numerically, there were few, combined population of about 4 million - German Baltics supplied military expertise as well as organising communal life e.g. education, agriculture o This meant they were valuable to the imperial centre as the expertise of educated minorities was widely used - Because of the German importance, their privileges were confirmed as they held advantages over populations of Latvians, Lithuanians and Estonians that had a much more peasant based existence  elites and landlords were German - First systematic attempts at Russification occurred in the early 1890s  standardisation for integration = official policy o Led to German privileges being revoked  no German instruction in schools, Russian the national language o Russification was also architectural e.g. Russian Orthodox cathedral in Riga in spite of Lutheran population - Because of the German Lutheran element (sola scriptura) literacy was very high – 100% of the people could read Second group: Finnish people - not very numerous BUT very prosperous ▯ Finland had been obtained solely for the purpose of security (reasoning behind much of the territorial expansion that occurred) - people whom were Lutheran by faith = self-governed and they held their own army  shows the faith the imperial centre had in their loyalty as own administration lasted until 1890 and was amongst the best run parts of the Russian empire - had local traditions but not the same religion – self governance combined with a commitment to their own traditions - much of their profit came from St P where they were masons and carpenters Third group:Armenians and the Georgians - two Orthodox Christian groups ▯small population and their proximity to the Ottomans meant they were scared and so in the 19thC they asked to be taken under Russian security ▯relationship of mutual benefits - Armenians profited from the economic conditions of the empire as they were often traders – became richer under Russia - Georgians excelled as soldiers whilst the Russians often liked their code of honour – particularly strong in the cavalry o Georgian nobles were incorporated into the Russian elite – they were valued esp. for their military expertise Process of Russification  had to occur as the Russian empire attempted to modernise in the 1890s - attempts to modernise administration via standardisation; local privileges and local elites had to be dismantled somewhat - for those at the centre, this process made sense but it backfired amongst those whom had been most loyal  they were losing their separate identities, privileges and cultures and they did not want any form of interference in their lives - worst episodes of violence occurred in 1905 in the Baltic regions  in Finland the Russian Governor was assassinated Disloyal National Minorities Poles - being a Pole in the Russian Empire equated to a political stance for the government; Poland had been dismantled by the l18thC and Russia got the section around Warsaw ▯ called ‘Congress Poland’ - much agitation occurred as St P got involved in local affairs  1830 and 1864 = there were revolts in Poland which = less autonomy as they were stripped of their rights pre-1864 and targeted for harshest Russification  wave of migration - instructions to teach in Russian at every possible level of education = Polish, Catholic education would breed more rebels o forced to start their day with the Lords Prayer in Russian  very hard for a Catholic to do  creates a long-lasting enmity between the two nations, that is apparent even in the 20thC Jews - Russia had no Jewish population before the partition of Poland - One policy that resulted was to confine the Jewish population to the frontiers to prevent them spreading within the empire  had the most compact Jewish population in E Europe - Jews were not permitted to engage in farming, were considered impure, were subject to quotas in universities  wished t to restrict them to the Pale settlement and restrict access to Kiev, Moscow and St Petersburg Northern Caucuses - acquired in 1859 ▯ Chechens and Dagistanis were fearsome fighters ▯ jihad of Sunni Muslims against the Russians was something to be honoured as a part of their Muslim beliefs - they were forcibly pacified under military rule with Governors and Commanders in charge Potential Disloyal National Minorities \ Ukrainians and Belorussians - Central authority belittled them: Ukrainian language had no written form and so it was seen as a dialect of pure Russian - Ukrainians could not be viewed as a nationality since otherwise Great Russians would be a minority - Population was largely peasants = few aware of a national identity = there were few channels to expand this - Ukraine had no education, no government, no language and no army by which to create a national identity - Social segregation was pronounced within the empire as national minorities inc. Polish and Catholics could not serve in theArmy  desire to avoid the creation of militarily trained rebels - Russian Empire = pre-19thC state of mind: they were good at building an empire territorially, but not a nation w. citizens Central Asian Empire - S and SE of the Russian Empire ▯ tribes of CAsia was never recognised as equal subjects as they were born as foreigners to Russia ▯ along with Jews, they were obliged to taxation though - Incorporation of CAsia = advantaged C authority as it created the sense of ‘white man’s burden’and superiority o Russians were the colonisers within Asia, whilst in Europe they were looked down upon Overall: the Empire  was centralised and did not tolerate local initiatives - heterogeneity was extensive though and was tolerated even in 1905 ▯ Russians did not have the economic potential to homogenise different microsystems of empire and were less developed than some of their vassal states e.g. Baltics, Finns - multiple groups were explicitly against Russification Week 2 – Lecture 1 – Russian Backwardness Gerschenkron and Laue  ‘theory of relative backwardness’ why was the European economy so advanced so early in time? - based on the dense population that caused pressure on the land and thus development = NOT the case in Russia o overpopulation = improvements of technique = trade and accumulation of capital; production of food = new market strategies BUT Russian explosion of population only began in the 1800s o ALSO – the mir meant peasants were not private producers = not much sense of individual endeavour = the mir whom decided who would pay/how much and how the land would be distributed – no long-term ownership Military prowess of the state would suggest a modern structure but in actuality, though it was part of the European pentarchy, Russia had all the features and indicators of an underdeveloped economy = low lifespan, defeated in the Crimea mainly due to economic failings  1860s = DIVIDING LINE as elite started to lose wars and stand up for interests/change = 1880s = Sergei Witte’s programmes were potentially the answer to this Russian empire = stagnated somewhat: reform initiatives generally come from above and there were no enterprising bureaucrats w. charisma to drive this process = had to persuade the emperors to begin a campaign of systematic industrialisation - as Europeans moved ahead, between 1809 and 1892 there had been NO Russian change = Witte needed fast alterations Witte = most capable imperial statesmen  combined education and expertise with drive of a modern-day politician - ‘good’imperialist ▯ saw Russia as destined for greatness; Russia’s elites had to do as much as possible to realise this - also, necessarily stubborn – Nicholas II was very, very indecisive Witte’s reforms (‘architect of Russian industrialisation): 1) protectionism of local industries from foreign competition with high import tariffs (30-80%) that encourage production and purchase of local goods ▯ helps to explain antagonism with Germany and thus the Russo-French alliance of 1892 2) foreign loans – investment for factories and infrastructure  France was a major source of such financing 3) railroad building – industrialisation needed moneyAND infrastructure  when Witte became Min of Transport Russia had 5,000km of track; ending with the Trans-Siberian railway, Russia had 20,000km+ of track = comparable to GB a. arteries that connected centres of supply and production were finished  raw materials to centres without high transport costs being added b. 5 or 6 centres of industry rose from this – Baku – oil refining and production, Irlam – steelworks, Moscow – textiles, St. Petersburg and Tula – armaments, ammunition and weaponry Was Witte good?  did he benefit Russia or did he rush the policies, leading to increased taxation for the peasantry? - Bad: Russian industrialisation occurred VERY rapidly and so there was a large amount of dislocation inc. social = 5.5 million people left the countryside for the urban = psychological impacts; migrant workers often left their families; often these workers did not become immediate members of the proletariat and it took time to learn skills needed for high-class work; workers were thus seen as disposable material – miserable wages, no labour legislation (1840s legislation = Siberia for those whom organised strikes), long hours of 11-13 per day, no sick or maternity leave = makes it clearer why 1905 occurred as participants did not really have much to lose - no trade unions or public organisations permitted pre-1904 ▯ no legitimate way for workers to pressure their employees Week 2 – Lecture 2 – Concept of Russian Autocracy and the Patrimonial State Russian industrialisation = belated in comparison to European states (60-70 years later); abrupt = many changes within a small period of time; state assisted due to the small numbers of middle class and entrepreneurs; state planned and executed carefully = link between economic/social transformations and 1905 1905 = not really an event so much as a series of events with various social disturbances that coincided and overlapped 1 – one group of scholars believe the major source to have been the losses in the Russo-Japanese War as colonial and economic spheres of the two nations overlapped in Manchuria and Korea; T-S railway tracks had been extended to Harbin - 1904 – Russians attacked at PortArthur; following 18 months = string of humiliating defeats inc. Tsushima – the ‘modernised’Russian navy was sunk in 24 hours ▯ demonstrated the inefficacy of the modernisation and poor training - the war was supposed to be small and victorious: a distraction for the people whom were showing signs of unrest = the imperial regime was unable to attain victory against an Asian power – ‘yellow peril’should have been easy to defeat 2 – OR 1905 began with Bloody Sunday when a peaceful march of 100,000 in St P marched to the Winter Palace wishing to ask the Tsar to improve their conditions of work – a traditional practice to the father of the nation  BUT soldiers shot and caused multiple casualties and forming the iconic image of ‘snow’and ‘blood’ - seemed the regime now stood for violence = people were appalled ▯first time in mod history that such a event had been so recorded ▯ belief that it was this date when the image of a benevolent, father-like tsar was shot before the WP o bond between the people and ruler that had saved the monarchy before was not significantly eroded = after BS  series of interlinked events  workers strikes in all major industrial centres, peasant violence in the countryside esp. of those from different ethnic origins, nationalist conflicts sprung up that had not been adequate channels of demonstration prior - worst episodes of ‘pogrom’during this period also - 1905 - mid-January to early-October – time of chaos when the government could not cope with overlapping crises 1905 = no leader  normal revolutions have prominent, respected leaders; most of 1905 was leaderless = domino effect occurred - eOctober = St P workers began to gather into Soviets (workers councils – deputies assembly to discuss further action) o St P = centre of industrial action with best educated and most skilful workers their  Trotsky was one of the first to organise the Soviet as he began to give political, rather than solely economic, justification for action  Led to general strike in October that virtually paralysed the population – food shortages even = these strikes = the breaking point  would have overthrown the monarchy if Witte had not persuaded N to compromise - Result = October Manifesto = promised civic freedom, basic rights of speech, assembly, meetings and institutions e.g. trade unions and political parties; called elections for Natl. Pment – Duma –to share legislative prerogative w. N ALSO OM opened space for political parties = Natl. Ass. meant campaigns, elections and representation for major parts of society - pre-1905 = political parties formed l19thC but illegally = clandestine, underground groups of peers whom shared beliefs o 1898 = small group of leftist Marxists in Russia formed the SDs – split into 2 wings – Men- and Bolsheviks o Socialist Revs = left party, unlike the Marxists, thought Russia did not have a significant number of industrial workers and instead aligned themselves with the peasantry for support = rural popularity  Capable and utilised terrorist attacks = special combat section murdered 7-9,000 in 2 years o Kadets = centre = Constitutionalist Party  Russian Liberals – most successful in elections for 1 and 2 Duma o Zemstvo = professionals = hired by local councils responsible for self-government to provide services for local powers; ‘third element’within the empire, serving society as a whole due to civic responsibility  Respected and valued human freedom and dialogue; hopeful for the chances of improving civic culture  No difference between worldview of Kadet and other contemporary liberals, regardless of location Russian experience = 4 Dumas between Spring 1906 -1917  inconsistent; intoxicating euphoria at first BUT practical experience = uneven = acc. to Constitution, ‘Fundamental Laws’the PM had ability to change the law via emergency measures - this was used by NII and Stolypin from 1906-11 to pass their versions of measures against the Dumas wishes - overall = limited efficacy and cooperation in spite of N’s attempt to cooperate in 1905 Stolypin = last great politician of the Russian Empire pre-WWI: conservative reformer  rather old-fashioned compared to Witte whom was a technocrat and modern man  saw agriculture and it’s reforming to be the solution to Russian problems - S was dedicated to the use of terror = pacification via court martials for those accused of terrorism – hung within 48h o 1906-7 = pacification of the countryside via ruthlessness - belief in breaking the mir = give more land to the peasants as a working cooperation w. cheap credit that would create independent farmers  provided land grants and credit for the peasants as an incentive (these became the kulaks) BUT – people were accustomed to thinking in old-fashioned ways and were suspicious/resistant to change; conflict was coming  this combined with his death = not enough time to achieve S’s aims and so they were not wholly successful re. pacification Week 3 – Lecture 1 – the Russian SilverAge Cultural history and a variety of developments that took place in Russia from 1898 (World Apart magazine published) until the beginning of the Great War (or the early 1920s with the politicisation of cultural propaganda) Influence for the SilverAge came from: - the philosopher Solvyov = religious thinker  tried to find a link between God and the human condition  materialism destroyed balance of human beings as they became focused on gaining more possessions rather than spiritual wellbeing o idealist and not materialist – redistributed all his property and belongings to instead live as a monk o wanted to re-establish relationship between God and man for spiritual immunity = Christ would breach the gap - Tolstoy = thoughts on death, ethics of human labour, relatedness to other human beings = later used by others o What is art? Essay = belief that art cannot be restricted or ruled, or taught – spontaneous expression of the soul o Horrified by death  death is not at all glorious = has no meaning to it; one is just gone o Preached that education corrupts young spirits; saw religion also as twisting and corrupting youth - Dostoevsky = central focus on the nature of the fight between good and evil  would not embellish his characters or make them solely good or bad; evil needs to be present to prove goodness o Believer in the greatness of empire  alongside Diaghilev also  all elements of Russian ballet performances within W Europe, were built on the element of Russian otherness o Russia had always been deemed to be backwards = l19thC was focusing also on the exoticness of Russia’s past Week 3 – Lecture 2 – the City in Imperial Russia Silver Age: turn of the century  brought modernity to art, philosophy, painting, writing as independent Russian cultural development  main topics of Russian poets and writers were universal, but addressed them from a specifically Russian view - specifically Russian = mysticism and relationship between man and God - emphasis on the exotic otherness of Russia = cannot solely be defined as backwards = otherness as a source of energy BUT a purely urban phenomenon = produced in major cities of the Empire; community of participants, all interlinked = urbanites Importance of the 4 major cities of the Russian Empire = attachment to a city can often create different images than reality - Novgorod ▯ ‘our father’; most excavated city; destroyed by the Germans in 1941 - Kiev  ‘our mother’; paramount city within Russian history as it was associated with adoption of Christianity from the Byzantine Empire = a replica of Constantinople w. churches built by the Kievan princes o Imagination of imperial Russia = Kiev was a centre closely associated with the importance of orthodox religion o High quality teaching in Kiev \ o During imperial times = became a border outpost between Ukraine and Russia; contagious diseases were a massive problem w. plague in the 18thC killing 15% of the population o In imperial perceptions, Kiev was deemed a solemn, monarchist, conservative centre = ‘decent’with low crime  Mixture of Poles, Germans, Russians and Ukrainian speakers = Kiev was famous for tolerance o Civil War = because of border zone and presence of German and Ukrainian nationalists, it changed hands a lot o WWII = because of tolerance it was a centre for Jewish migrants = 1941= 150,000 Jews with 40,000 shot by SS  For Nationalists and Jewish integrationists = Kiev was their city - Moscow  capital (along w. StP); ‘our heart’; grew as an embodiment of centralised state with tree forming from the Kremlin and Tsar  also Holy Moscow, Third Rome, Merry Moscow, the Big Village (for countryside visitors) o much architectural symbolism = domes of the churches; Cathedral dedicated to the assumption of God’s Mother within the walls of the Kremlin = place where royals were crowned and patriarchs were buried  St Basil = example of the interconnectedness of Europe and Asia on Russian soil  Soviet Symbol = Mausoleum of Lenin  Metro = Red Moscow = why is there so much splendour below ground when there is much to be done above?  designed for transport, Soviet type of education with homage to Soviet heroes - St P  Petrograd  Leningrad (1924)  St P (1991)  capital moved to St P in 1703 by P the G; city fundamentally represented the ideals of Peter regarding modernisation = fundamentally artificial city as P decreed everything inc. widths of roads; regulated colours = became a symbol of alienation for authors and poets o Sense that living in St P caused disconnectedness between each other o sense of rivalry between Moscow and St P = developed over the years = different and special dialects, pronounced differences between the two places; even the party organisation in M was more loyal than St P’s  Stalin never trusted Leningrad Communists = were cosmopolitan = different influences than Moscow - Odessa  port city built in the l18thC  more of an American type of city than Russian; major exporter of grain = remained main export port for the whole of the 19thC until the l1930s o multitudes of people leaving/entering; national groups not welcomed in the empire e.g. Greeks, Jews, st Bulgarians, were welcomed = 1860s: 56% of the population spoke Russian as 1 language; 30% = German  tolerance until the pogroms of 1905 o ‘sin city’as almost everyone lived very fast lives; colloquially known as the Russian El Dorado = men went for wealth, women were beautiful, food and wine was delicious; underworld of thieves and Jewish gangsters also Week 4, Lecture 1 – Marxism and the Russian Intelligentsia Leninism = Russian version of Marxism whilst also representing distinctive Russian nature of revolutionary tradition = heir Russian intelligentsia = not a social group = not translatable to the Russian concept of intellectual; they were educated but, unlike westerners, were interested primarily in politics  common enemy of the revolutionary intelligentsia was autocracy and tsarism - Alexander Herzen = trouble reconciling Russian conditions with his westernism: saw progress as embodied by the west and became disillusioned with conditions of the working classes = capitalism was fundamentally linked to exploitation o Wrote that socialism could be achieved in Russia if the revolutionary intelligentsia did not try to implement capitalism but used the peasant commune as a building block = very utopian BUT father of Russian socialism - Mikhail Bukanin = perceived evil to come from government  permanent revolutionary - advocated anarchy in Russia 1860s = most important streak of Russian utopian thought = nihilism = Chernyshevsky ‘What is to be Done?‘  fictional account of utopia where the main character, the ‘new man’, has dreams and imagines functioning of a perfect future community - the ‘new man’would be dedicated to the just cause, regardless of the pr▯not care how much human sacrifice or suffering would occur on their path and had complete disregard for personal needs, at the altar of the revolution o created a role model for later, tough revolutionaries = often exiled, Lenin also originally refused a salary - nihilism was frustrated as it attempted to: educate the countryside in accordance also with Herzen’s emphasis on the mir – said that those committed to change could do anything  thousands left for the countryside in 1864, change the system from the base BUT half ended up being shipped to Siberia as the peasants denounced them; others were badly beaten = ‘going to the people’was a disaster Terrorists followed the peaceful populists = small part with bombings in l1870s  Emperor killed in 1881 by a small military sect named the ‘People’s Will’ believed assassination of the Emperor would bring change but proven wrong - 1881 = year of despair amongst the intelligentsia = all methods of changing the system were unsuccessful Marxism emerged at this intersection  revolutionaries began to become well read = Marx was first translated to Russian in 1882 - within 10 years, he was the favoured reading of anyone educated and seen as a bl
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