HIST 328 Keywords
It is the capital of the Xinjiang Province (New Territory Province).
Although a city in a predominately Muslim region, it was founded by the Qing Empire
in 1750s after the victory over Zunghar Empire.
Predominately Han with minor Muslim population.
Great example of Qing’s vision on colonization.
Combination of military garrison and civilian zone.
Increasing amount of Han and Chinese Muslim (Hui) traders.
Historical Significance: A representation of one of the Qing’s empire-building
strategies. Qianlong Emperor believed that commerce is the best way to exert control
and bring stability to a region, even it is an alien culture relative to Qing.
2. Gaitu Guiliu（改土歸流）
Literal meaning: Eliminate hereditary ruling, and replaced by rotating officials
It is a political-cultural-legal policy launched by Yongzheng Emperor in 1730s.
Supported by Yongzheng’s trusted minister, E’ertai.
Traditionally, Chinese emperors would not intervene with Southwestern minority
groups. Their local leaders were hereditary de facto rulers.
Yongzheng wanted to introduce Qing jurisdiction to those areas.
Chiefs were deposed and replaced by magistrates.
Lands were registered, examination candidacy introduced.
Locals were very upset because of cultural disturbance and clashes with Han Chinese.
Local dissatisfaction created violent rebellions in Qianlong era.
Historical Significance: A representation of one of the Qing’s empire-building
approaches. Yongzheng Emperor believed in tightening the control of minorities to be
the way to incorporate non-Han-Manchu-Mongol into the Qing governing system.
Zunghars were a sub-group of Mongols.
Once adopted the tributary status with the Qing, conflicts grew in early Kangxi era.
Zunghar received Tibetan recognition as Khanate. Qing was displeased. They were also
disrespectful in tributary missions with frequent pillaging.
Battle of Khalkhas in 1687 triggered decades of war and ceasefires. Galdan was their
By Qianlong era, the last Zunghar leader Amursana rebelled again in 1756.
Qianlong was tired of constant rebellions and committed to genocidal warfare.
600,000 Zunghars were suspected to be killed by diseases and massacre.
Historical Significance: Zunghars’ relationship with the Qing showed Qing’s
empire-building strategies. Qing used several methods in dealing with foreign countries
in the northwest, such as subjugation through warfare, issue of tributary status, and
4. Secret Memorial System
It was a political project launched by Kangxi Emperor. 2
Before, submissions from officials must following their hierarchy. A provincial official
must report through their superior instead of directly to the emperor.
Officials in province could submit memorials in secret containers. Those messages were
received by the Emperor directly.
Kangxi tried to extract authentic information rather than fully relying on court officials’
Yongzheng expanded the system and incorporated it into the governing system
Historical Significance: The system is an evident example of early emperors’ desire in
consolidating power. They try to circumvent court officials in order to counter court
officials’ encroachment of imperial power. Example of centralization.
Literally Mt. Forever-White, it is the ancestral homeland of the Manchu.
Historical Significance: Unknown
Fu’an City is in the coastal province of Fujian.
During the 1630s, Dominican missionaries introduced Christianity to the inhabitants.
The city was located at backwater region, thus relatively free from central government’s
control and influence.
Major lineages in city had Christian ties or beliefs and dominated local politics.
Women often converted to Catholicism to avoid arranged marriages.
Qing tried to suppress it but local magistrates tended to turn to a blind eye until 19
Historical Significance: An exceptional example of Christian conversion in Qing,
contrasting the 1723 Christianity Prohibition launched by Yongzheng. Christianity
survived in Qing and actually served significant social roles in certain places.
Yangzhou is a city in the coastal province of Jiangsu.
A rich city in terms of commerce and culture before the coming of Qing army.
General Shi Kefa of the Ming resistance was entrusted by Yangzhou population.
Merchants donated to defensive projects.
1645. The city fell under Qing forces. Yangzhou Massacre broke out. City declined
afterwards and played a minor role in Jiangnan region.
In reality, the Qing forces were predominately surrendered Han forces in the north.
An inhabitant escaped and wrote a book on the stories. Some were mythicized.
In the 19 century, stories of such were re-imported from Japan. Content became highly
exaggerated and mythicized to stir anti-Manchu sentiment.
Historical Significance: The mythicized story of the Yangzhou massacre served to
understand origins of anti-Manchu content in the 19 century. Stories were preserved
and hidden in the 17 and 18 century and resurfaced in 19 century. Historical events
from the military conquest era became sources of ethnical oppression.
8. The Queue 3
The queue is a hairstyle in Manchu tradition. Aka the Chinese pigtail.
1640s, the Queue order was enforced. All males shall cut their hair in favour of queue.
At first, Qing conquest did not receive much resistance from local gentry and
Haircutting was a violation of Confucian tradition – hair is a part from one’s parents and
shall not be disposed. Literati were enraged and resistances were intensified.
Some literati cut all their hairs and became monks as an act of protest.
Historical Significance: It demonstrates a cultural conflict between Manchu and Han
Chinese in the 17 century. In late 19 century, the queue became a symbol of Manchu
oppression and was exploited as anti-Manchu propaganda.
9. Tongcheng County（通城縣）
It is a county in the Hubei province.
Once an influential place in Ming, it was a minor county in the Qing.
Two great lineages controlled the town: Fang, and Yao.
They preserved power through accumulation of land, intermarriages etc.
Both groups fled the county when Qing army brought havoc.
They eventually returned and continued their hegemony.
Qing government tried to abolish the tax-free status the gentry held – it was a traditional
source of power for gentry’s domination. Land registration was ordered to be conducted.
Lijia was supposed to be enforced. Lijia is a tax collection model: leader of several
households collects taxes leader of a county collects taxes from household leaders
leader of a district collects taxes from counties etc.
The two lineages managed to convince the magistrate to give up the implementation.
“Administration cost spent in launching these projects actually cost more than you
expected to make.” They claimed.
Historical Significance: It served as an example of political continuation despite
dynastic transition. Local gentry’s domination remained an important factor in Chinese
politics and was barely affected by the Qing conquest.
He was a Jesuit served in the Kangxi court.
Produced 500 guns for the Qing army in the Three Feudatories Rebellion (1673-81)
He and other Jesuits produced maps of the Empire. More detailed than Chinese
Kangxi favoured his and his companions’ production, but limited their production to his
Historical Significance: Early Qing’s attitude towards Westerners were predominately
motivated by utilitarian purposes. Qing did not adopt a secluding policy but also
disfavoured intensive Western interaction.
11. Hongyi Cannon
It is a Dutch cannon design imported from foreign traders in late Ming period.
The gun was used by late Ming army, and Nurhaci was defeated and killed in the Battle
of Ningyuan in 1626.
Later, the gun was used by the invading Qing forces. Forts of Ming were easily 4
In 1631, Qing established a Chinese artillery battalion with the guns.
Historical Significance: Technological transfer from Ming to Qing?
12. Fan Wencheng（范文程）1597-1666
Once a talented Ming official, he surrendered to Qing in 1621 after a conquest.
Especially entrusted by Hong Taiji, he was one of the Han men picked by Hong Taiji to
develop codes and order for the establishment of Qing Empire.
In Qianlong period of the 18 century, men like Fan who converted to Qing were
criticized for being twice-serving officials.
Historical Significance: His fame, from positive to negative showed how memories of
the conquest was modified for imperial needs. At first, conversion was hailed for
peacemaking and cultural harmony. Later, conversion became an act of disloyalty as
Qianlong tried to please the literati – they were rather sympathetic to the Ming
13. Qian Qianyi（錢謙益）1582-1664
A former Ming official and served in the resistance, he surrendered to the Qing forces.
Became a prominent Qing official and but was suspected to have ties with anti-Qing
underground members and ousted from office.
A particularly prominent example in the Biography of Twice-servs 貳臣傳）ficial（
published by the court in Qianlong era, which he was ranked as an unhelpful
Interestingly, in late 19 century his poems were uncovered and revolutionists used
them as anti-Manchu propaganda.
Historical Significance: The frequent switch of opinion regarding Qian showed how
historical events and people were appropriated for each propagandist’s need.
During his lifetime, his surrender was regarded by literati as a shameful betrayal,
but the court honoured him to a certain extent.
By Qianlong era, he was treated as a disloyal opportunist.
In late 19 century, revolutionaries used his poems on Manchu as sources and basis
of anti-Manchu claims and evidence of Manchu oppression.
14. Ever-normal Granaries
One of the 4 types of granaries used in Qing, it was essentially maintained by the state.
Each granary of such stored stupid amount of grain and could feed people exceeding its
responsible amount of population. Located in major cities.
They were particularly widespread in Kangxi reign.
A good subsidiary supply of grain came from gentry’s donation. The state in return
provided examination degree-equivalent benefits.
Grains were frequently sold to traders to prevent rotting (wasted).
Historical Significance: The Qing state became a large holder of grain and acted as
mediator of the flow of grain. Part of the policies contributing to centralization.
15. Huiguan（會館）or Native-Place Associations
They were well-established lodges built by a certain group of people with a common 5
ancestral or geographical or ethnical origin in foreign cities.
For example, Beijing had a Hunanese huiguan for the people from Hunan.
It provided ritual, cultural, housing, and philanthropic acts.
Burial service (get the corpse back to homeland), worshipping local gods,
providing lodging for examination candidates etc.
Dramas and operas from homeland were also performed.
Historical Significance: Cultures that were once local were spread across the country,
such as Huizhou Opera (thanks to merchants). Fostering a new common Chinese culture
while retaining individuality.
16. Guandi, the God of War
Guandi was a famous warrior in the 3 century.
Once a local religion for martial blessings, Qing adopted him as a state deity in 1725.
Rituals were standardized and state sponsored his temple across all cities.
Historical Significance: Qing tried to emphasize martial qualities, a trait Manchu
generally favoured, through picking a traditional Chinese god. It showed Qing’s
maneuver in appropriating qualities that might deem unfavourable by Han Chinese
through Han Chinese’s own tradition.
17. Mazu or Tianhou th
She is a goddess of seafaring since the 11 century.
Since Song dynasty, she rose from a local deity to a well-known god.
Shunzhi Emperor thanked her for blessing his sea voyages.
Qianlong officially granted her the title of Tianhou, meaning the queen of heaven.
Her temples were endorsed by the state and represented the value of possession. These
temples were not allowed to tear down.
Historical Significance: Another example of how Qing used Chinese folk religions in
shaping a state religion. It showed that the Qing court was willing to borrow religions
that were deemed useful to the state and maintained minimal bias in shaping a state
He was a Manchu high official in Qianlong’s court.
His power rivalled a regent’s and controlled many state affairs.
Frequently handpicked men he trust in most departments and bureaus. Bureaucracy
Jiaqing Emperor executed him in 1799, but was unable to fire all of his associates due to
the enormous number.
Historical Significance: His corruption led to an inefficient bureaucratic machine, and
forced Jiaqing looked to local literati as a solution of state management. A departure
from centralization to decentralization.
19. Female Suicide
This tendency was generally motivated by the cult of chastity, sponsored by the state.
Increasingly women took more roles in the family and performed ritual and familial
Women therefore were viewed as guardians of lineage purity. Lineage purity brings
harmonic families, according to the state, and therefore keeps social unrest down.
As a result, females were encouraged to commit suicide when were about of be violated.
State supported them through commemorations.
Historical Significance: It showed how Qing diverted familial responsibilities towards
women and placed extra moral weight on their lives.
20. Three Followings（三從）
Namely: following your father, following your husband, and following your son.
These were values commonly endorsed by handbooks for women, and were widely read,
respected, and practiced.
Historical Significance: These values were tolerated by Qing because it helped the
state to promote a harmonic model of family (preventing them from collapsing through
strong attachment between family members). Another example of how Qing valued
women in preserving the well-being of a family.
Literally means evidential studies.
It was a study started in Qianlong-Jiaqing period and focused on critical analysis of
neo-Confucianism from Song dynasty.
They tried to find origins of sources and criticized neo-Confucian scholars’
misinterpretation or fabrication of ideas.
Funded by Jiangnan merchants, Yangzhou became a heartland of Kaozheng.
Example: by the time there were two version of Book of Changes (old and new). Old
was written in archaic Chinese and was thought to be the true copy. It turned out the old
version was fabricated and the new one, written in easier forms was more reliable.
Historical Significance: Kaozheng represented a movement by Jiangnan literati, aimed
to challenge the state endorsed neo-Confucianism. Again, one could see how
Confucianism was used by different groups of people to bolster their positions.
You might want to compare to Kang Yowei’s interpretation of Confucianism in late 19
22. Yuelu Academy（嶽蔍書院）
Located in Hunan, it was a private academy that was against Kaozheng. 19 century.
Fierce supporter of the Song neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi and criticized Kaozheng’s
bookish behaviour – one should not rely too much on books but metaphysics.
To counter Kaozheng, the academy favoured learnings of solving practical matters.
Also, it was against lavish expenditure as many Jiangnan Kaozheng schools had.
Historical Significance: The academy not only represented a countermovement of
Kaozheng, but also contributed to the rise of prominent Hunanese officials like Zheng
Kuofan and Zuo Zongtang, who were skilled at solving practical matters.
23. Cotton th
Since 18 century, cotton had replaced the role of silk in clothing due to heavy foreign
demands of silk.
Coastal regions around Canton had intensive c