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HIST 382 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Zulu People, Zulu Kingdom, Shaka


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 382
Professor
Elizabeth Elbourne
Study Guide
Midterm

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HIST 382

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The four former South Africa colonies in 1910, upon the act of the Union
Cape of Good Hope (British)
Natal (British)
Transvaal (Afrikaner)
Orange free state (Afrikaner)
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They were the basis of South Africa politics
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Black Africans were not allowed to live in "white areas" of South Africa
and this had an enormous impact on people's lives
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The new government got rid of the homelands and carved up the old
homelands into 9 provinces (formation of South Africa today)
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Ethnicity has been weaponized through the use of homelands
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Tried to define groups as self contained, low standing groups that were so
compelling that people had to belong to them (justification for the
apartheid regime)
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Conversations about ethnicity played into ethnicity of the apartheid state
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Would take until the end of the apartheid for new discussions of ethnicity
to emerge
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Language groups in SA are enormously diverse
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In the pre-colonial movement, there was a lot of movement between the
groups
Groups existed on a language dialect spectrum
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Two large categorizations of African peoples based on language
Khoekhoe
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They were pastoral
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The two (san + kohekohe) speak different languages
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Khoekhoe languages are not spoken anymore except for in
Namibia
Revival of Khoekhoe identity
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Describe themselves as indigenous peoples to South Africa
San
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Original inhabitants of Southern Africa
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They were hunter gatherers, small-scale societies
Lecture 1 -Precolonial Societies in Southern Africa
Tuesday, January 8, 2019
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They were hunter gatherers, small-scale societies
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Had small communities of at most, 200 people because they
lived in difficult environments
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Rock art from the Drakensberg was still made up until the
1900s
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Enormous debate of what rock art means, a lot of these
paintings are about carrying out spiritual activity (shamans)
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San people were imprisoned in the Cape, some of these
people engaged in extensive contact with each other
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Many of these themes and language is incorporated into the
South African coat of arms
Mapungubwe
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Included four broad categories of distinctive language traits
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South Africa has 11 official languages
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One of the most interesting archaeological sights in the 11-13th century is
Mapungubwe
Example of a fortification that shows social stratification
Sight that has graves, gold foil rhinoceros
Sight suggests artistic sophistication and emergence of wealth
accumulation and social stratification
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Ruins from Great Zimbabwe date from the 12-15th century
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Show how politicized archaeology is
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Arguments
You can see new people being formed
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Tensions between naming a group and then acknowledging
their political community
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They are diverse linguistic groups, but there are common
characteristics that archaeologists and linguists think exist
across time
There is the presence of chieftaincy, but there would be
difference approaches to it
Chieftains become the center of powerful kingdoms
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Central points of cattle
Cattle were a major source of wealth and cultural pride
They could also be used as a token of exchange
57 words in their language for different kinds of cattle
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Use of a range of spiritual specialists including healers and
people who could create favourable conditions for (wars?)
and rain
Societies with rich oral traditions
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Societies with rich oral traditions
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Include both stories or structured formal ways of creating
historical memories
Environment deeply structured people's lives and relationships
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How much rain there is where
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In the North there were great periods of drought
Politicized history
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Debates about archaeology and ways of using this history
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Ways of reclaiming the important history
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