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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

INTD MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE httpwwwoupcanadacomhighereducationcompanionpolitics9780195428049studentresourceshtmlInternational Development Approaches Actors and Issues By Paul A HaslamthSeptember 6 What is DevelopmentAP Thirwall Development and economic growthDefining Development Development as Economic growthEconomic Growth Implies using a countrys scarce resourceslabor capital natural resources administrative and managerial capacitymore efficiently o Measured by GDPof goodsservices produced per head of the populationof goodsservices population orGNP if net income from abroad is added to GDP o Does not take into considerationHow the output is distributed among the population doesnt measure inequalityDoesnt say anything about what output or goods are being produced Development as Economic and Social Development oMeasured byIncrease or decrease in societys welfareDevelopment must include not just economic growth but also social objectives Denis Goulet 1971 3 core values of development o Life sustenancePopulation must have basic needs shelter water food clothes o SelfesteemCountry must have selfrespect and must be able to act independently of other nations Therefore IMF and World Banks domination of monetary policy may be detrimental to development o FreedomAbility of people to determine their own destiny All must benefit from growth not just richest fewArmatya Sen Development as Freedom o Economic Growth needs to be used to further expand social objectives o Underdeveloped meansLack of access to wealth discrimination limits on political and economic rights Difference bw Economic Growth and Economic Development o Economic Growth doesnt measure living standardsexploitationhuman rights UNDP has created alternative ways of better measuring economic and social development o HDI Human Development IndexMeasures how economic growth benefits standard of livingLife expectancy at birthEducationliteracy rateGDPPPP o HPI Human Poverty Index of population not expected to survive past 40Deprivation index of population without access to safe water of pop wo access to health services of children underweight due to malnourishmentDevelopment and social welfarehuman rights by Jennifer A ElliotCritical development studies st Concerns for development in 21 Chuman wellbeing inc civil and political libertiesmeeting physical and material needs of human societydevelopment becomes more morally informed emphasis on human welfare and human rights concernsUnderstanding that many still lack fundamental goods and opportunitiesExpansion in monitoring deprivation and progress worldwide eg UNDPOverturning of postmodern movement rightsbased development gains strength through critique of neoliberalismRights and development as separate concernsCritique led by West that development through 40s and 50s devoid of ethical considerations and separate from those marked out for developmentIdeas of progress generally synonymous with economic growth and modernizationquantified by GDPGNPAssumed welfare and rights would follow as outcomes in linear process of econ developmentTraditional view of human rights centre on CP rights right to life liberty eg to vote free pressEven though ESC Covenant adopted by UN in 1966 less prominentBasic needs approachLate 60s recognize need to look at distribution of wealth Increasing wealth in developing countries also lead to rise in absoluterelative povertyBNA direct approach required to deliver welfare outcomesdevelopment broad based peopleoriented endogenous processdistrictregional planningsupported by intl donor institutionsIn 70s result of influence of BNA vast array of programs focus on households health education farming etcto create minimum level of welfare for weakest groups in societysocial indicators for development appearedput poverty human rights back on official development agendasBuying and selling welfareIn 80s development reversalseg falling school enrollmentliteracy levelsdevelopment theory reach an impasse through rise of neoliberalismConverging agendas through the 1990s1986 UN adopts UN Declaration on the Right to Development development is inalienable human rightIn 90s theoretical turns generated ideas on how development could be achievedcritique on neoliberalism and understandings on uneven impactslimits to globalisationpeoplecentered developmenthuman empowermentdevelopment involves expansion of Sens freedoms so individuals can lead the kinds of lives they have reason to valueAgencies of UN eg UNDP make important contribution on changing ideasevidence of how development conceived in terms of human rights recognition of multidimensional natureHDI HPI GDI gender related human development indexNow poverty understood as human rights violation more holisticmoral agendaMillennium Development Goals working to ensure freedom from povertymultibilateral aid focusedWorld BankIMF coordinatedrequire recipient countries to establish coherent plants focused on pov reduction
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