INTD 200 Final Notes FALL 2012 (Complete set).docx

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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

Lecture #2 th Sept. 7 Developing versus developed? What’s in a name? - Development/underdevelopment - Comes from Truman’s speech - First, Second, Third and Fourth World - NAM- attempting to bring political unity between countries, but isn’t used anymore - Newly Industrialized Countries (NCIs) - aka. Emerging markets - Developing Countries/developing economies - Alternatives – South, Global South Defining and measuring development: DEVELOPMENT AS ECONOMIC GROWTH - GDP - Gross Domestic product - measures value of goods and services within economy of a country - used comparatively - GNP – Gross National Product - money coming from outside the country - ex. Overseas workers - GDP per Capita – avr. income per person in a country - doesn’t account for income distribution/equality - GNI (Gross National Income) per capita – term used by world bank, essentially GDP - PPP – Purchasing Power Parity - accounts for the cost of living Development and Social Welfare: INEQUALITY - Kuznet’s curve - Measuring inequality o dividing population into economic strata o Gini coefficient  Between 0 and 1. Lower indicates lower inequality - Social capital and inequality o Value of social networks - Poverty – absolute, moderate, relative - GDP per capita doesn’t account for inequality or poverty. Addressing Inequality and poverty? - Redistribution with growth (1970s) - Basic human needs approach o Income/consumption – poverty line Beyond Economic Growth – Human Wellbeing - Dudly Seers o Development as realization of the potential of human personality o 6 Condition: 1. Income for basic needs 2. Employment – not only income, but that contributing to self-respect 3. Improvement in income distribution 4. Education/literacy 5. Political participation 6. National autonomy - Denis Goulet o 3 core values of development (basic needs, self esteem, freedom) - Amartya Sen o “Development as Freedom”  Ppl. have choice of destiny o Capability approach  Economic growth to increase freedom and social opportunities.  High level of economic growth doesn’t increase freedom unless it is invested in human development Measuring human wellbeing - HDI o Life-expectancy at birth o Education (adult literacy and school enrolment) o Standard of living (GDP with PPP) - Human Poverty Index (HPI) o % of population not expected to survive beyond 40 o Adult literacy rate o Deprivation index - % population with no access to health care, water, and % of malnourished children - Gross National Happiness Index (GNH). Psychological and social indicator o 4 Ideas (based on Buddhist values):  Stable Development  Preservation of cultural values  Conservation of natural environment  Establishment of good governance Measuring human wellbeing/poverty (cont.) - Social Exclusion approach o Addressing political and social aspects of poverty/inequality. - Participatory poverty assessment o Experience of poverty in local context Millenium Development Goals (2000) 1. Eradicate poverty and extreme hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equity and empowerment 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, other disease 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop global partnerships for development Lecture #3 Sept. 12th - Human rights and democracy are essential to development - What is the significance to a rights-based development system? Human Rights - Rights inherited to all human with the fact of existence - They can be recognized legally, but it cannot be taken away or granted because it is inherent - Human rights become civil, constitutional, legal rights once they are legislated - Development of Human Rights o Philsophers o Ex. American Declaration of Independence, French Declaration of rights of men and citizens o After WWII, UN charter declared necessity of human rights  Three main Pillars: 1. Prevention of War 2. Building of Peace/Respect of Human rights 3. Socioeconomic Development  This was created in the form of UN commission of human rights - Universal Declaration of Human Rights released. - These founding principles of human rights were made to promote peace and prevent war - ***KNOW THIS***: “UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS” from final vote on Dec. 10 , 1948 o Revolutionary development in IR and international law on THREE points  This was first time that the world recognizes certain rights belong to all human beings  First time that an instrument in international law recognized and gave higher priority to individual rights over state rights.  First time there was a significant recognition of economic, social, and cultural rights. Neither American or French declaration dealt with socioeconomic rights  these are related to development. - Understand all Articles of UDHR - Very few of these rights on articles are limited. (ex. Article #30: you can’t use a right to take away another right) - Declaration is not a treaty or a convention, but a aspirational document, not a legally binding document. o But its high prevalence has made it legally binding as a customary int’l law o Provisions into 2 conventions that were legally binding: 1. Int’l covenant on civil and political rights  Human Rights Committee 2. Int’l covenant on economic and social rights  Economic/Social Rights Committee  Committees encourages to live up to the provisions they set  Human rights committee also dealt with minority rights - Relationship between human rights and development o Human rights is entitlement (civil, political, sociocultural) o Development goes beyond economic development, but also human, cultural, political dev. - Terminology o Instrument (ex. Declaration, convention, protocol, treaty): generic term for describing document as an international law o Declaration: aspirational instrument, but not legally binding o Convention: Legally binding document, must be undergone signature ratification (ex. Signing a treaty/convention as a process of ratification) o State Party: once a country ratifies a convention, it becomes state party o Excession(?): when a country decides to support a treaty that they once didn’t. o Reservation: a country may reserve or withdraw from particular parts of a convention (it is limited) o Memorandum of understanding: we ratify, but it is under subjective interpretation. o First/Second/Third Generation Rights: First- civil/political, Second- economic/social, Third – collective rights o Conventional Int’l law: agreed-upon treaties/conventions of human rights o Customary Int’l law: law that is recognized by ideal principles o In’tl Bill of Rights: UDHM, two covenants, two protocols (amending provision to treaty/covenant) combined. Lecture #4 Sept. 14th - Lecture on Internship Lecture th Sept. 19 Colonialism and the History of Development European colonialism - General characteristics of pre-colonial societies o Small subsistence communities to hierarchical states o The boundaries were not territorial-based, but people-based, so were not defined well. o A lot of boundaries today are from colonial times - Colonialism (2 types) – colonies of settlement, colonies of rule o Colonialism: Subjugated populations under European ideas of rule and state o Colonies of settlement: land taken from native people by military or legal power (ex. Canada) o Colonies of rule: colonial administrators reorganized and imposed their rule (ex. India, Spain) - Ideologies of justification o Development modeled after industrial revolution  Idea of industrialization: Trying to manage similar situations in colonies o “white man’s burden”  Discourse that Europeans were obligated to discipline the colonies based on European models of industrialization Impact of colonialism o Displacement of land for industrial productions, marginalization, psychological impact o Indirect rule – system of gov’t in British and French giving traditional leaders authority to rule on behalf of them o Extraction (labor, resources, cultural treasures) - Transformation of local agricultural systems o Traditional to Europeans farming systems (cash crops, monoculture, plantations) o New conceptions of property and land ownership o Social and ecological impact  As people were displaced - Transformation/undermining of local industries o Ex. Indian textile industries- British imposed high tax; flooded India with cheap cloth that was made in India. Impact (cont.) - Colonial division of labor o Extraction of labor and raw materials o Support European industrialization, manufactured goods shipped back in (unequal ecological exchange) - Global diaspora o Ex. African slave trade Decolonization - Independence and nationalist movements o National consciousness  Educated people took on European ideas to throw back the colonizers o Thinkers and intellectuals  Discourse on nationalism and inequality o Anti-colonial resistances  Militarized  Labor unrest  Idealist Decolonization and development - Post WW2 – US dominant power - Marshall plan (1947) – relevant in development o Idea of providing financial help to Western Europe, but also to stimulate markets for the American manufacturing sector o Reconstruct post-war Europe, Establishment of “Bretton Woods” Institutions  Was by the US, creating economic prosperity and national political interdependence in Europe o Political Institutions - UN  Tackle new political threats and promote peace o Economic Institutions  Int’l Bank for Reconstruction and Dev. (World Bank) - Fund through loans  Int’l Monetary Fund (IMF) - Provide loans to restore int’l currency  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) - Now World Trade Agreement (WTO) - Decrease tariff and barriers to promote trade Nation-States/Development states - Decolonization of Dismantling of colonies and creating political independent states, and it divided countries into three geopolitical areas: 1 , 2 , 3 world - Territorially defined political system based on gov’t-citizen relationship - Adherence to and construction of national boundaries (Based on colonialism) Nation state and development - Nation-state as locus of development - Development as sth that could be achieved through industrialization within nation-state (USA model) o National division of labor (USA model)  Decreasing agriculture or Agriculture funding industrialization within national boundaries o Agriculture replaced by industry – development of each sector interdependent  Development as way to generate market and also to gain access to the third world through these relations o National industrialization – modernization and is linear o Overlooks process of colonization Impact on “development” - Global interdependence - Development as “destiny” - Development to improve local living conditions as way to keep control of colonies - BUT – impact of colonialism on global inequality Lecture #6 st Sept. 21 Theories of Development (part 1). Modernization, dependency, world systems theory Industrial Capitalism - Restructuring social relations in Europe o Suggesting shift from agricultural to industrial society for all nations - Classical economic paradigm o Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776)  Laissez-faire capitalism  Hidden hand o Alfred Marshall: principles of Economics (1890) o Later-Karl Polanyi: The great transformation (1944)(critique of laissez faire capitalism)  Fictitious commodities, double movement, role of state - Fictitious commodities: It creates people, labor, and money as commodities; these are not produced for the market. - Double movement: With the spread of market society, there is a double movement which will be resistance to market control. Development Economics/Neoclassical paradigm (early 1950s) - John Maynard Keynes: General theory of employment, interest, and money o Mixed economy, increased role of state in regulating markets, increased state spending, advocated policies for state infrastructures for creating jobss o Disagreed against laissez-faire capitalism would lead to economic recession in bad times. - W. Arthur Lewis: Economic development with unlimited supplies of labor o Dual economy (capitalist/modern and subsistence/traditional)  Economies in underdevelopment world is dual: advanced or modern (manufacture/industry) / subsistence/traditional (small agriculture) Modernization Theory - Walter Rostow (1960): The stages of Economic Growth: A non-communist manifesto o 5 stages through which all countries pass in process of economic growth (towards capitalism)  Stage 1: Traditional society (primitive technologies, hierarchical society)  Stage 2: Pre-conditions for take-off (improvement of transport, increase in trade/investment, centralized nation-states)  Stage 3: Take-off (agriculture commercialized, supporting urban dev)  Stage 4: Drive to maturity (self-sustain growth)  Stage 5: Age of high mass consumption (importance of consumer goods and services, rise of welfare state) - Critique – unilinear, Eurocentric, sequential, economic growth versus development Dependency Theory - 2 types of states- dominant/dependent, core/periphery - External forces central to economic activities in dependent states - Relations and interactions between dominant and dependent states reinforce inequality - Focuses on economic development of state in terms of external influences o Looking at how historical conditions of inequity shapes the structure of world economy o This was a response to MODERNIZATION THEORY, looks at underdevelopment, looking at the unequal relationships among nations o Development in some places leads to undevelopment in others - Rual Prebisch (1950s) – ISI as a solution of self-reliance o Import-substitution industrialization  Protect infant industries within countries through increasing tariffs on imports from other places as a way of encouraging development of industries and discouraging imports - Problem: poor countries did not have large enough internal market to support the economy. - Paul Baran (1957) o Role of powerful elite within country partnering with more advanced countries o These partnerships perpetuated the extraction of primary products from these peripheral countries to core countries. - Andre Gunder Frank (1967) o Capital dynamics of world trade between underdeveloped and developed actively underdeveloped the poor countries  intensify inequity Modernization - Focuses on countries (nation-states - Problem of dev. Is original state of “non-dev” (resources not being used - Development is a process in which traditional societies catch up with modern societies - world divided into modern/trad. Dependency - Focus on entire capitalist world system (relations between countries and historical roots of these relations) - Single, integrated historical process produced development in some places, and underdevelopment in other places. (resources used to support dominant states, underdevelopment result of economic relationship between countries) - Catching up and modernization is impossible under capitalism, and socialism or shift in trade relations is the only solution - Elites are collaborators in process of underdevelopment - World divided into core/periphery Lecture #7 Sept. 26 th Debt and Structural Adjustment - Debt accumulated: borrowing money to invest in industrialization post WWII from the IMF and World Bank, to support state-led economic dev. and ISI dev., and to prevent spread of communism. Int’l Debt Crisis - 1970s – era of surplus capital and loan pushing o World economic growth slowed; drop in value of dollar. - End of 70s – economic crisis. o Slowdown of growth in dev. Countries, high oil prices, and stagnation in US economy o Response was to impose neoliberal model (free-market, reduce state intervention, privatization, reduced regulation for trade and tax) - Early 80s – increased interest rates o Caused shock for countries that took loan: took more loans to pay back the loans - 1982 – debt crisis in South, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Poland default on loan payments - Restructuring of debt repayments, borrowing/lending of more money to pay deb interest o Designed for these countries; allowed longer repayment time, more money borrowed to pay back, o In order to manage these problems, IMF and World bank stepped in with SAPs Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) ‘Reversion’ to free market – neoliberalism 1. Promotion of free trade and mobilization of domestic production for the market o Generation of foreign exchange revenue from increased export of traditional commodities (produced by the country)  Export promotion, comparative advantage, first world benefitted o Currency devaluation to make exports cheaper and comparative. o Promotion of free trade/economic liberalization o Tax reductions (motivate foreign and local individuals and businesses to invest and save) 2. Reduce the role of the sate (in gov’t size, and gov’t control) o Public sector wage freeze, gov’t salaries kept lower o Downsizing civil service o Reduce gov’t spending on public services o Privatization  Selling state enterprises and para-statal corporations - These policies became the conditions for financial support from IMF and World Bank = no choice for developing countries. SAPs – IMPACTS/ISSUES - Social Impacts –rising prices of food and imports, decreased salaries and services o Worst hit were urban poor/gov’t employees o Hit ordinary ppl, not so much elite, or peasants who produced surplus for sale - Food security undermined o Move to produce agriculture for cash rather than for subsistence - Environmental impacts o Marginal land brought into productions = chemicals - Movement of $ from South to North - Undermined social development - Issue of sovereignty/conditionality Lecture #8 Sept. 28 th Post-Development - Modernization was considered to be a failure by the developing communities - Post-development theory emerged as a resistance to these mainstream ideologies (dependency, modernization), but asking question of why developing theories are not effective. Development as discourse - Influence of post-modernism o Language and construction of social reality o Knowledge as social constructed – not neutral - Development as discourse how we speak about it, represent dev. and developing countries influences reality - Importance of texts, images, concepts in creating “development objects” - Discourse and representations influences actions; important for what they DO (as scripts and ideologies for action) Discourse and Action - Colonial discourse o “White man’s burden” – the representation of ppl. as uncivilized justified a kind of intervention of outside colonizers and the legitimization constructed how ppl. thought about reality  Exploited nature of colonization was overlooked by this discourse of civilization - Depoliticization o The idea of development as something technical and can be managed. o Development as technical plan and objective endeavour. - Hegemonic theory o Thinking something is taken for granted and is assumed as truth o Certain theories of development became hegemonic; “progress is development” has become naturally accepted as good, overlooking the adverse sides and is being underlain by the theory. - James Ferguson – the anti-politics machine (post-modernist) o Development representations of Lesotho o Development as technical project (neutral science, not political), need for outside interventions o Projects created in line with technical skills of development practitioners Swidden Cultivation, Laos - Representation important in this case; post-modernist analysis o People practising this kind of cultivation is represented as poor, and causing poverty. o The land they use is represented as state forest; meaning their rights to the land are insecure.  These representations can work to justify interventions in the name of development to move ppl. off the land o The land they used to own is now for rubber-production land (environmentally better and economically better), BUT Whose interests does it serve? Def, not the cultivators.  these kinds of discourses and representations of places and people lead to the legitimacy of specific kinds of actions, which hides the sufferings of others. ***Escobar – Problematization of poverty (post-dev. theory) Poor/poverty constructed as social problems - Become objects of knowledge production and management - Represented as having needs – this supports interventions in their interests (and control) - Poverty becomes an organizing concept for thinking and action - The evolution of ideas of intervening on behalf of the poor to see how development gets perceived as discourse Escobar: development as discourse Development constructed in the same way… - Creation of “abnormalities” (small farmers, women, slum-dwellers) to be treated/fixed. - Knowledge produced about these “problelms” in “objective” social sciences (seen as apolitical) - Solved using technical and scientific knowledge (considered neutral) – development seen as apolitical - Professionalization of development – expert knowledge –linked with institutions of dev. Some Problems with Post-development approach - Academic critique – doesn’t pose solutions to real problems, it is only a critique. - Poverty and issues of dev. are not only socially constructed.. people DO want dev. and interventions that help them - Paints all dev. as negative and the same, almost a self-serving conspiracy. - BUT – makes us think about our perspectives.. and our assumptions about how we perceive problems. - Main points: o Development discourse fostered a way of conceiving social life as neutral and technical problem, something that can be managed by technical expertise, ignoring political context o Development is a rationale for acceptability of interventions in ppl’s lives that reorganizes society or resources used for specific goals (national goods discourse) o Development also sometimes acted to increased control of population and resources –form of power. o Development is hegemonic because it is perceived as “natural”. Lecture #9 Oct. 3st - After acceptance of promulgation of Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the two int’l covenants, - Recap: Human rights, contrary to legal rights, constitutional rights, are rights inherent in every human beings (cannot be given or taken away). Can be recognized or abused. Global recognition of human rights was first initiated in charter of US in 1945. Universal Declaration was a breakthrough in int’l law in 3 grounds: 1. First time human rights were recognized universally 2. First time int’l treaty dealing with individual rights, not state rights 3. First time of universal declaration of economic, social, cultural rights - Being a declaration in int’l law is NOT a legally binding document, BUT a aspirational document (therefore wasn’t a treaty or convention) - Two Conventions in 1966 (but took 10 years to come into force): o Mentioned previous lectures.. Expansion of Human Rights Instruments - In developing treaties and standards of UDHM, there has been great success o UDHM + 2 int’l covenants (civilpoli+econculture) = Universal Bill of Rights - Difficulty in applying the principles in each case of countries led to development of individual specific conventions on certain subjects o 1 was Convention on Genocide in 1948 o 4 Geneva Conventions on war  Treatment of the wounded/sick on the field  Treatment of ship wreck (?)  ***Treatment of Prisoners of War  Treatment of civilians in war  Implementation of these conventions are by Int’l Red Cross o List of Expanded conventions (takes few years for them to come into effect)  1951 Convention on refugees  1969 Convention on racial discrimination  1981 Convention against discrimination on women (excluding violence)  1984 Convention against torture and inhumane punishment  1989 Convention on the rights of Children  ***1998 Convention on int’l criminal court – provided a way of enforcing the convention against genocide and inhumane violence - - Int’l Labour organization, created at times of League of Nations, put out conventions of contemporary slavery, rights to organize collective bargaining, rights to strike, etc. - Relationship between democracy and development of human rights: o Most human rights activists say democracy as that just having free fair frequent elections doesn’t mean it is a genuine democracy; democracy should promote in line with universal bill of rights. o Democratic development program has 10 indicators for evaluating a democracy  Free fair periodic elections  Full respect of human rights including minority and gender equality  Respect for the rule of law and uncorrupt.  Independent judiciary  Independent legislature  equitable distribution of wealth  control of military by civil authority  public accountability on ongoing process of consultation between elections  Transparency and access to information  Free and active civil society - As one began to expand the list of human rights subjects (right to food/water/development), the area of disagreement grew and more difficult to get agreements. - You can’t have democracy without respect of human rights, and can’t have respect of human rights without democracy o There is no perfect democracy –all are in progress Lecture #10 Oct. 5th - Even though the countries ratified to conventions, countries tried to sneak out from the obligation of conventions. Perceived attacks on UHR are in the following: o Cultural relativism (Attack from the east):  from Asian countries of dictatorship; they expressed this opposition in the name of “Asian values”; universal declaration parts do not apply to them because it is contrary to these values.  Human right is a new form of western colonialism according to the governments; but, Asian civilians wanted human rights. o Economic Globalization (Attack from the west):  By definition, Laissez-faire, free economic system for the whole world with little regulations. No minimum standards for human rights, labor, environment, or health.  It is considered an attack because in most free-trade agreements, under WTO or such, there is little or no provisions for human rights, labor, etc.  Free trade agreements were abused to circumvent the higher standards or taxes and to circumvent obligations to provide decent labor standards (pensions, healthcare, etc) and move your manufacturing to countries with lower standards and sell most of products back in US or Canada.  Global wealth increased, but distribution became more inequitable. o Abuse of emergency provisions in the name of security  Anti-terrorism legislation and Patriot’s Act, etc, removed certain basic human rights.  These acts began to have impact on laws that were innocent, who weren’t terrorists  Acts to prevent terrorism has to be in a way that is permissible in int’l law.  This abuse of derogation procedures in the use of anti-terrorism legislation is important and existent as an attack to UHR. o Lectureth11 Oct. 10 Midterm Exam Lecture #12 Oct. 17th Environment and Development - Early development focused on increasing productivity and economic growth o Environmental implications were cash crops, deforestation, increase in mechanical agriculture (chemical use), resource extraction (mining) o This led to depletion of fisheries, destruction of coral reefs, pollution of agricultural lands Hydro-electric dams (national development vs. conservation) (development displacements) - One of major projects for development - Portrayed as environmentally friendly - Provide irrigation, control flooding, generate local electricity, - However, negative impacts exist o Displacement of people (areas flooded are usually indigenous people) o Change in flow of river (impact movement of fish and alters the breeding ground) o Decomposition of plant matter under water (causing build-up of organic mercury  health impact) o Reservoirs can emit greenhouse gases o Increase in deforestation o Dam is represented as the only way to conserve environment in Laos Changing perspectives on environment and development - Limits to Growth – introduced by Club of Rome o “Carrying capacity” o Need to curtail pop. growth, production, consumption to avoid catastrophe o Population expands faster than we can feed them - Sustainable Development o World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) o Brundtland Report “Our common future”  Sustainable dev: dev. that meets the need of present without compromising the needs for future generation  Poverty itself can be cause to environmental degradation because poor ppl. are forced to use resources in ways that are not sustainable in order to support livelihoods (ex. Cutting trees to buy food) - Poverty and the environment o UN Conference on Environment and Development (The “Earth Summit”)  Poverty alleviation as priority in order to have environment sustainability o Rio Agenda 21 o Link between poverty and environmental degradation. Property Rights: What is property? (for controlling environmental degradation) - Social relationship, not “things” or owned resources o The fact that people respect the fact that you own it. - Social contract. About obligations and rights o It requires social obligation to respect it as a right - Types of property important for rural livelihoods: o Private property  Property owned by individual or household (ex. House, garden) o State property  Property owned by state (Ex. National forests, oceans) o Common property (governed by social institutions)  Resources owned collectively by a group of ppl. (ex. Fishing community allowing seasonal fishing)  Institutions are not static, but subject to negotiation and change over time o Open Access – (not really property, tragedy of the commons)  Free-for-all, everybody can use it without regulations or sanctions or membership  Harden uses tragedy of the commons to argue for pop. control. Common property rights institutions (Elinor Ostrom) - Bounded area/territory - Defined membership (though membership in community, kinship group, etc.) - Rules and regulations to manage access and use of resources (individual rights to different resources within common territory) - Processes for enforcement of rules and sanctions against violators - Ability to excluded non-members Issue: Overlapping state and local property: seeing the forest for the trees? - Area is defined as state forest but also under customary claims (common property within state forest land) - Resulting in competing rights to exactly same resources - Implications: conflicts between groups that want to claim resources for different purposes 2 Approaches to Conservation: 1. National Park Ideal (US Yellowstone Park model) o Need to be managed by state o “western” division between nature and culture. Concept of pristine wilderness, where people do not live. o These parks require moving people out of their long living grounds so they can be managed for conservation by the state o Because people degrade nature (Tragedy of the Commons) o Parks without people, State managed, “paper parks” 2. Community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) o Local ppl. as answer to conservation o Common property institutions, indigenous environmental knowledge (traditional ecological knowledge)  Knowledge important to find ways to conserve environment  Local ppl. have incentives to conserve b/c they depend on them for livelihoods o “socio-nature” – people create and influence biodiversity o This model places community at the basis as fundamental as nature is being created by people. o Problem:  Assumption that all communities are traditional and homogenous and environmentally noble.  Who makes the decisions?  Conflict within the community to how to use the resources  Assumption that institutions and “traditional” local knowledge, rituals are intended for conservation (static)  Ignores different power, interests and motives within community (local politics)  Reinforce local hierarchies and inequity Another issue: Social Movements: Indigenous people, place and conservation - Notion of indigenous identity linked to place o Indigenous ppl. use their identity for environmental conservation to get ppl. from outside to support their rights to land against other state developments. - Who is indigenous? Indigenous representations o Are some people more indigenous than others? - Alliance between int’l NGOS and local people - Certain ethnic groups as “conservationist”, others as destructive CBNRM and conservation: What are the ethics involved? - Are the goals of community development and natural resource conservation truly compatible? - Conserving the community or conserving natural resources/biodiversity? - What are the ethics of critiquing concept of community/indigenousness at same that local ppl. use this to assert territorial rights? What is political ecology? - Definition and history o Focuses on understanding environmental change at the very local level within the context of broader political and social framework o Considers relationships of power and social disadvantage between different groups within society - Links different scales of analysis: 1. Contextual Scale (State policies, relationships between states, global capitalism (globalization)) 2. Local scale (place based conflicts over access to resources, property and resource rights) 3. Political ramifications of environmental change (impact on relationships between different groups in society)  Costs and benefits unequally distributed  May reinforce existing social and economic inequalities  Political implications (local/peasant resistances, displacements, conflict, development, etc.) Lecture #14 th Oct. 19 Relationship between Human Rights & Development and Peace & War - UN charter conventionally have THREE purposes, o Prevention of War & Maintenance of Peace o Promotion of Development o Promotion of Human Rights  All are interdependent  - For development to be successful, peace is necessary. - To attain development, we need access to economic, social, and human rights, and peace. - Development is not just in economic terms, but also human development - Respect for human rights is embedded in UN Commission on Human rights, which became UN Human Rights Council, which became main body of Human Rights Development. - With respect to development, Economic and Social Council of UN is main body dealing with economic and social issues. - 1986 Declaration of Right to Development (it is not a treaty or convention) o Declaration which meant that those who agreed to it agreed to aspire to these goals (ex. Recognizing development is a comprehensive cultural, social, economic, and political process which aims at the improvement of entire population) - Democracy, development, and respect for human rights are mutually reinforcing - Human Security Policy meant as an opposite concept to State Security. o UN charter was to protect the security of states. o Inter civil wars called for necessity for human security. o Human security led to establishment of Int’l Commission on Intervention and Sovereignty.  12 members, reported the “Responsibility to Protect”  According to this, every state has a responsibility to protect its ALL citizens. - Three Processes: o Detect in advance the coming of genocide, etc. o UN could intervene to protect people Lecture #15 Oct. 24th Poverty and Famine Food Security/Insecurity - Food insecurity: o Chronic under nutrition  Food deficits (micronutrient deficiencies- having lack of some type of nutrient) o Abnormal food shortage (famine)  Happens in response to shock (ex. Drought, flood, economic recession) - Not about how much food is available, it’s about how people can gain access to food - Food security means that food is available at all times, that all people have means of access to it, that it is nutritionally adequate in terms quantity, quality, and variety; and that it is acceptable within the given culture. Food insecurity vs. famine - Chronic under nutrition (things that impact access to food) o Gender (social identity)  Food access is influenced by power relations within household (patriarchal homes) o HIV (health)  This health issue affects people’s ability to work on the farms (decrease in production and decrease in incentive to invest in longer term sustainability) o Lack of agriculture technologies DEBATES: o Population growth, environment (Malthus)  Food production won’t keep up with population growth.  Famine will compensate for the growing pop.  Increase in pop.  environmental degradation
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