Lecture 21 (revised).docx

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Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 330
David J Pearsall

Ederly Population 12/16/2012 3:04:00 PM Older person: 65+ Very old: 85+ Longevity: Average age of 77 years in America  Males 74  Females 80 Majority of the population if >65  as people get older they are more likely to report getting no activity o much greater in blacks/Mexicans Key points  The lifestyle behaviors you follow now and throughout your life will greatly affect your health and need for medical services during your later years   functional capacity: strength, endurance, VO2 persons ability to function on a daily level o for older people: ADL: continute to live independently if they can maintain their functional capacity  base line of functional capacity that will dictate whether or not they can live alone o peak functional capacity ~ 20yrs  non active: lower peak, and will remain lower throughout life with a similar decline Effects of aging  Decreased sensations o Taste, smells, hearing, vision  Decreased mental ability o Memory, judgment, speech  PA improves coginitive function: increases BF to brain helps prevent formation of plaque  Decreased organ function o Digestive system, urinary tract, liver, kidneys  Decreased bone and muscle mass o Lean body weight, bone mineral content (osteoporosis)  Peak bone mass in late 20s  With PA, we can reduce the amount of bone loss  Decreased physical fitness o Health-related fitness o Reaction time, movement time, coordination, balance  Decreased ADL o Ex. bathing, walking 2 flights of stairs  Increase rates of chronic diseases Jeremy walkstein: walks with frail people and looks at genes/interventions that may help older people age more successfully  Cycle of frailty: should be cycle of sedentarism Starting at decreased activity  Decrease in TEE  Decrease in TEE causes for a reduced appetite under nutrition  Under nutrition leads to negative caloric/energy abalnce  This causes them to lose muscle mass (sarcopenia) o Loss of muscle mass b/w 22-55 o Loss it much faster at an older age & sedentarism  Sarcopenia leads to o Osteoporosis, decreased insulin sensitivity o Decrease in VO2 max  Causes a decrease in walking speed  disability  increased dependance on others  Decrease in walking speed also makes you less active starting the cycle again o Decreased strength/power  Leads to impaired balance resulting in more injuries and falls that leads to immobilization  This leads to decreased walking speed that leads to decreased activity o Decreased RMR  Leads to a decrease in TEE  Sarcopenic obesity (20-30% of obesity in older adults)  Fat but frail at the same time  Most severe, most susceptible to chronic diseases Sarcopenia  Loss of muscle mass and decline of muscle quality (contractility) observed with increasing age  Linked to falls, functional decline, osteopososis, glucose intolerance  Emaciated people: decline in over all muscle and quality of muscle Changes in aging muscle  Decerase mass/cross sectional area  Decrease in forced produced by single muscle cell o Muscle quality  Infiltration of fat and connective tissue  Decrease in #/size of
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