# Chapter 8

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McGill University

Mathematics & Statistics (Sci)

MATH 111

Nabil Kahouadji

Winter

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MATH 111 – Winter 2012
8: PROBABILITY
8.1 How Probabilities are Determined
experiment: an experiment M is an activity whose results can be observed and recorded
outcome: each of the possible results of an experiment
sample space: a set of all possible outcomes for an experiment
event: any subset of a sample space
8.1.1 Determining Probabilities
law of large numbers (Bernoulli’s Theorem): if experiment is repeated a large number of times, the
experimental or empirical probability of a particular outcomes approaches a fixed number as number of
repetitions increases
probability of an event with equally likely outcomes: for an experiment with sample space S with
equally likely outcomes, the probably of an event A is given by P (A) = number of elements of A / number
of elements S = n (A) / n (S)
8.1.2 Mutually Exclusive Events
mutually exclusive events: events A and B are mutually exclusive if they have no elements in common
- if events A and B are mutually e

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