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OB Final Exam Review.docx

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McGill University
Management Core
MGCR 222
Patricia Hewlin

MGCR 222: Organizational Behaviour 1 Final Exam Review Chapter 6: Motivation  Locke’s Goal Setting Theory: specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher motivation o Role of difficult goals:  Focus and direct attention  Energize the person to work harder  Difficulty increases persistence  Force people to be more effective and efficient  Management by Objectives (MBO): emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable and measureable o Common ingredients:  Goal specificity  Participative decision making  Explicit time period  Performance feedback  Adams’ Equity Theory: employees compare their outcomes-to-inputs to relevant others o Ratios  Equal: state of equity exists; no tension because the situation is considered fair  Underrewarded: creates anger  Overrewarded: creates guilt o Referent comparisons  Self-inside  Self-outside  Other-inside  Other-outside MGCR 222: Organizational Behaviour 2 o Organizational Justice Chapter 10: Communication  Channels: the medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver o Formal: established by organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities of members o Informal: personal or social messages  Formal small group networks & effectiveness MGCR 222: Organizational Behaviour 3 TYPES OF NETWORKS Criteria Chain Wheel All Channel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a leader Moderate High None Member satisfaction Moderate Low High  Barriers to effective communication: o Filtering: a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favourably o Selective perception: any characteristic that makes a person, object or event stand out will increase the probability that we will perceive it o Information overload o Emotions: may interpret messages differently when you’re mad than when you’re happy o Language o Communication apprehension: social anxiety  To reduce the chances of committing a faux pas in another culture: o Assume differences until similarity is proven o Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation o Practice empathy in communication o Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis Chapter 11: Leadership  Leadership: the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals  Trait theories: consider personality, social, physical or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders  Behavioural theory: leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the proper behaviours to teach potential leaders  Contingency theory: leadership effectiveness depends on the environment o Fiedler’s theory: effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and situation  Situational factors  Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust in the leader  Task structure: degree of structure in the jobs  Position power: leader’s ability to hire, fire and reward MGCR 222: Organizational Behaviour 4  Identifying leadership style: use least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire to identify the style by measuring whether a person is task or relationship oriented  Defining the situation:  Leader-member relations: the degree of confidence, trust and respect members have in their leader  Task structure: the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (structured or unstructured)  Position power: the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotion and salary increases  Matching leaders and situations:  Pros: o Considerable evidence, especially if the original 8 situations are grouped into 3  Cons: o The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood o LPC scores are not stable o Contingency variables are complex and hard to determine MGCR 222: Organizational Behaviour 5  Leader Member Exchange (LMX) o Because of time pressures, leaders form a special relationship with a small group of followers, the “in-group”, who are trusted and get more time and attention from the leader o All other followers are the “out-group” and tend to only have formal relationships with the leader  Transformational leaders: o Idealized influence o Inspirational motivation o Intellectual stimulation o Individualized consideration  Transactional leaders: o Contingent reward: contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments o Management by exception  Passive: intervenes only if standards are not met  Active: watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards; takes correct action o Laissez-faire: abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions  Authentic leaders: ethical people who know who they are, know what they believe in an
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