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MGCR 222 Midterm Review.docx

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Department
Management Core
Course
MGCR 222
Professor
Patricia Hewlin
Semester
Fall

Description
MGCR 222 Midterm Review Check slides before printing! Chapter 1: Introduction of OB HBS Article: What do Leaders Really Do? Chapter Objectives: Define OB; Show the value of OB; Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB; Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB; Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts; identify 3 levels of analysis in OB Definitions: OB: a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and stricture have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving and organization’s effectiveness Systematic study: looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence Evidence-based management (EBM): complements systematic study by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence Intuition: those ―gut feelings‖ about what makes others and ourselves tick Psychology: seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Social psychology: generally considered a branch of psychology, blends concepts from both psychology and sociology to focus on people’s influence on one another. One major study area is change—how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. Sociology: studies people in relation to their social environment or culture Anthropology: the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities Contingency variables: situational conditions; contextual personalities, skill levels varies, it depends Workforce diversity: acknowledges a workforce of women and men, may racial and ethnic groups, individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities, and people who differ in age and sexual orientation. Ethical dilemmas and ethical choices: employees are required to identify right and wrong. Determining the correct way to hehave is especially difficult in a global economy because different cultures have different perspectives on certain ethical issues. Notes:  Managers problems often stem from poor comm. Skills, motivation, conflicts  ― with strong interpersonal skills valuablehigh performing employees  OB topics include: Motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication, group stricture and processes, personality, emotions, and values, attitude development and perception, change processes, conflict and negotiation, work design  Review chart 1.1 page 4  There are few absolutes in OB, not everyone has the same motivations ($, religion, etc.)  Successful managers and employees are able to cope with temporariness, flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability.  Managers need to be able to stimulate their employees creativity and tolerance for change  Work –life conflicts and balance valuable  Luthan’s Study of Managerial Activities 4 Types: o traditional management o communication o HR Management o networking* (*connecting w/people) Chapter 8: Foundations of Group Behavior HBS Case: Bob Anderson Chapter Objectives: Define ―group‖ and distinguish the different types of groups; Identify the five sages of group development; Show how role requirements change in different situations; Demonstrate how norms and status exert influence on an individual’s behavior; contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making; evaluate evidence for cultural differences in group status and social loafing as well as diversity in groups Definitions: Group: 2 or more individuals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives Formal group: one defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks Informal group: neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact Command group: is composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager Task group: also organizationally determined, represents individuals working together to complete a job task Interest group: people who affiliate to attain a specific objective with which each individual is concerned (ie. Improved work conditions) Friendship groups: members have one or more common characteristics (I.e. age, ethnic heritage, sports, etc.) 5-stage group-development model: characterizes groups as proceeding through the distinct stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning Forming: great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. Storming: intragroup conflict; accept existence, but resist constraints imposes on individuality; relatively clear hierarchy of leadership when complete Performing: functional, moved from getting to know each other to performing task at hand Adjourning stage: preparation for disbanding Role: set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role perception: our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation Role expectations: the way others believe you should act in a given context Role conflict: when compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another Norms: acceptable standards of behavior shared by their members that express what tey ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances (appearance, social arrangement, resource allocation) Hawthorne studies: concluded that behavior and sentiments were closely related, that group influences were significant in affecting individual behavior, and that group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output Reference groups: a person is aware of other members, defines him/herself as a member or would like to be a member, and feels group members are significant to him or her Conformity: impact demonstrated in Asch studies (compare cards with line lengths) and Hawthorn Studies (conformity can be positive) Deviant workplace behavior (antisocial behavior or workplace incivility): voluntary behavior that violates the organizational norms, and threatens the well being of the organization’s members, depends on accepted norms of group Status: socially defined position/rank given to groups or group members by others Status Characteristics study: derives status from one of 3 sources: 1) the power a person wields over others 2) a person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals 3) an individual’s personal characteristics Social loafing: tendency for individuals to expand less effort when working collectively than alone. Cohesiveness: the degree to which members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group Groupthink: situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual minority, or unpopular views (p.117) Interacting groups: members meet face to face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate Brainstorming: can overcome the pressures for conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism Nominal group technique: restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process (p.119) Notes:  people join groups b/c they believe in an idea, vision, culture  How are decision made o Centralized/ decentralized o Consensus based---can you please everyone o Delegation of authority o Controls and processes o Can a large, complex organization be entrepreneurial o Look out for consultants, acquisitions, and financial crises o Organizations evolve and devolve o Some career paths aren’t straight forward o Sponsors come and go  Zimbardo Case o Prison run by psychologist, after 36hrs students have mental breakdown; no one questioned authority o Role perception o Role Expectations  Bystander effect: larger group, less likely someone will act during a crisis  Sarcasm, name-calling, ridicule, punches enforce negative norms  Group norms press toward conformity; collectivity to social norms higher in collectivist cultures  Those working in a group more likely to lie, cheat, steal then individuals working alone  High-status individuals given more freedom to deviate  Ways to prevent social loafing o 1. Set group goals; 2. Increase intergroup competition which focuses on shared outcome; 3) engage in peer evaluation; 4. Select members who have high motivation and prefer to work in groups; 5. Base group reward in part on each member’s unique contributions  Ways to encourage group cohesiveness o 1. Make group smaller; 2. Encourage agreement with group goals; 3. Increase the time members spend together; 4. Increase the group’s status and perceived difficulty of attaining membership; 5. Stimulate competition with other groups; 6. Give rewards to the group rather than individuals; 7. Physically isolate the group  Pros and Cons of Group Decision Making o Pros: generate more complete info and knowledge; increased diversity of views; increase acceptance of a solution; generally more accurate; more creative o Cons: conformity pressures; discussions dominated by 1 or few members; ambiguous responsibility; speed=slower  Group think phenomena: o Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they’ve made o Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily express doubts about any of the group’s shared view, question validity of arguments of majority o Members who have doubt or differing points of view seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus by keeping silent about misgivings and self-doubt o There’s an illusion of unanimity. If you don’t speak, you agree.  Group think occurs most with groups with clear positive group identity, o Managers can avoid by monitoring group size o Encourage leaders to play an impartial role o Discuss disadvantages then advantages to an idea  Group shift leans towards greater risk; group decision exaggerate initial position of individual members  Individuals working alone generate more ideas than a group in a brainstorming session Chapter 9: Understanding Work Teams HBS Case: Army Crew Team Chapter Objectives: Contrast groups and teams and analyze the growing popularity of teams in organizations ; compare and contrast four types of teams; identify the characteristics of effective teams; show how organizations can create team players; decide when to use individuals instead of teams; show how our understanding of teams differs in a global context. Definitions: Work group: a group that interacts primarily to share information and make decisions to help each member perform within his/her area of responsibility Work team: generates positive synergy through coordinated effort Problem-solving team: members share ideas or suggest how work processes and methods can be improved; rarely have authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggestions. Self-managed work teams: groups of employees (10-15) who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors (planning, scheduling, assigning tasks, operating decisions, etc.) Cross-functional teams: made of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task Virtual teams: use technology to unite physically dispersed members and achieve a common goal (p.125) Team effectiveness model: made of 3 components: 1) Context: adequate resources; leadership & structure; climate of trust; performance evaluations and reward systems 2) Composition: abilities of members; personality; allocating roles; diversity; size of teams; member flexibility; member preferences 3) Process: common purpose; specific goals; team efficacy; conflict levels; social loafing Organizational demography: attributes such as age or date of joining should help predict turnover; includes age, sex, race, educational level, length of service in the organization Reflexivity: reflect on and adjust master plan when necessary Team efficacy: confidence in themselves; believe they can succeed Mental models: knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done Notes:  Effective Virtual Teams require: 1) trust among members 2) closely monitored team progress 3) efforts and products of team publicized throughout the org.  Scarcity of resources directly reduces ability of a team to perform its job effectively and achieve its goals  Members more likely to take risks and expose vulnerabilities when trust others on team  Teams require technical expertise, problem-solving and decision making skills, and interpersonal skills  High ability teams more adaptable to changing situations; perform worse with simple tasks  Most able, experienced, and conscientious works should be in most central roles of team  Communication is important for teams with diverse teams  Turnover greater among those with dissimilar experiences because communication is more difficult  Consider the benefits of sub-teams (accountability, social loafing, communication)  When member’s contribution is not clearly visible, individuals tend to decrease their effort  Good planning, specific goals, and confidence facilitate clear communication and effectiveness  Training: workshops help employees in training  Rewards should be performance-based on achievement of team goals  Consider: teams make sense when success of the whole depends on individual and success of each one depends on success of all Chapter 2: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Chapter Objectives: contrast 3 components of an attitude; summarize relationship between
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